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Flashcards in Week 4 Deck (17):
1

Capitalism

An economic system dominated by the supply-demand-price mechanism called the market; and entire way of life that grew in response to and in service of that market

2

Colonialism

Cultural domination with enforced social change

3

Political Economy

A holistic term that emphasizes the centrality of material interest (economy) and the use of power (politics) to protect and enhance that interest

4

Neocolonialism

The persistence of profound social and economic entanglements linking former colonial territories to their former colonial rulers despite political sovereignty

5

Typology

A classification system based on, in this case, forms of human society

6

Unilineal Cultural Evolution

A nineteenth-century theory that proposed a series of stages through which all societies must go (or had gone through) in order to reach cilvilization

7

Social structure

The enduring aspects of the social forms in a society, including its political and kinship systems

8

Band

The characteristic form of social organization found among foragers; a small group of people, usually with 50 or fewer members. Labor is divided according to age and sex, and social relations are highly egalitarian

9

Tribe

A form of social organization generally larger than a band; members usually farm or herd for a living. Social relations in a tribe are relatively egalitarian, although there may be a chief who speaks for the group or organizes group activities

10

Chiefdom

A form of social organization in which the leader (a chief) and the chief’s close relatives are set apart from the rest of the society and allowed privileged access to wealth, power, and prestige

11

State

A stratified society that possesses a territory that is defended from outside enemies with an army and from internal disorder with police. A state, which has a separate set of governmental institutions designed to enforce laws and collect taxes and tribute, is run by and elite that possesses a monopoly on the use of force

12

Structural-functional theory

A position that explores how particular social forms function from day to day in order to reproduce that traditional structure of the society

13

Culture traits

Particular features or parts of a cultural tradition, such as a dance, a ritual, or a style of poetry

14

Culture Area

The limits of borrowing, or the diffusion, of a particular cultural trait or set of traits

15

Globalization

Reshaping of local conditions by powerful global forces on an ever-intensifying scale

16

Cyborg anthropology

A form of anthropology analysis based on the notion of organism-machine hybrids, or cyborgs, that offers a new model for challenging rigid social, political, and economic boundaries that have been used to separate people by gender, sexuality, class, and race, boundaries proclaimed by their defenders as “natural”

17

Science studies

Research that explores the interconnections among the sociocultural, political, economic, and historic conditions that make scientific research both possible and successful