Week 4 Foundations of Employee Motivation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 4 Foundations of Employee Motivation Deck (109):
1

Employee Engagement is defined as an Individual’s _____ and cognitive (logical) _____, particularly a focused, intense, _____ and purposive effort toward work-related _____

emotional, motivation, persistent, goals

2

Employee engagement reflects ____ _____ in the work place, as well as high _____: believe you have the ability, role clarity and resources to get the job done

high absorption, self-efficacy

3

Drives are _____ needs (emotional)


primary

4

Needs are ___

secondary

5

Drives + needs =

decisions and behaviours.

6

Self concept, social norms and past experience effect

drives, needs, decisions and behaviour

7

The following are _____
- Hardwired brain characteristics (neural states) that energise individuals to maintain balance by correcting deficiencies
- Prime movers of behaviour by activating emotions
are both

Drives

8

Drives are ___, needs are ____

innate, shaped

9

Characteristics of needs

• Goal-directed forces that people experience.
• Drive-generated emotions directed toward goals
• Goals formed by self-concept, social norms, and experience

10

Maslow's Needs Hierarchy Theory

•1 self-actualisation
•2 Esteem
•3 Belongingness
•4 Safety
•5 Physiology

11

Need to know and need for beauty is also a need but it

doesn't quite fit in the hierarchy

12

Maslow suggests that the _____ unmet need is _____. When satisfied, next higher need becomes _____ _____

lowest, strongest, primary motivator

13

Self-actualisation is a

growth need because people desire more rather than less of it when satisfied

14

Maslow’s theory lacks empirical support because

People have different hierarchies
Needs change more rapidly than Maslow stated

15

Hierarchy models wrongly assume that everyone

has the same (universal) needs hierarchy

16

Needs hierarchies are shaped by person’s own

values and self-concept

17

Maslow contributed these perspectives to the motivation theory

•Holistic perspective

•Humanistic perspective

•Positive perspective

18

Holistic perspective is an


Integrative view of needs

19

Humanistic perspective is

Influenced by social dynamics, not just instinct

20

The Positive perspective pays attention to

strengths (growth needs), not just deficiencies

21

Learned Needs Theory suggests that

Needs are amplified or suppressed through self-concept, social norms and past experience

22

Needs can be strengthened through

reinforcement, learning and social conditions

23

Three Learned Needs- Davide mcClelland examine these 3 learned needs

•Need for achievement
•Need for affiliation
•Need for power

24

A need in which people want to accomplish reasonably challenging goals, want responsibility, direct feedback and recognition responsibility

Need for achievement nAch

25

Need for ______: need in which people seek _____ from others and to avoid conflict. Effective executives have lower need for _____ _____.

affiliation approval, conform, social approval

26

Need for _____: A need in which people want to _____ one’s environment (people, material, resources)
to benefit themselves or others (Personalised versus _____ power)

power, control, socialised

27

Four-drive is a motivation theory theory was developed by

Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria

28

Four-drive theory is a motivation theory based on the four innate drives to:

• Acquire
• Bond
• Comprehend
• Defend

29

Drive to Acquire characteristics

• Drive to take/keep objects and experiences
• Basis of hierarchy and status

30

Drive to _____ characteristics: Drive to form and social commitments. The basis of social _____
and preventative of anti social behaviour, that can impact upon success.

Bond, relationships, identity

31

Drive to Comprehend characteristics

• Drive to satisfy curiosity
• To understand environment and self

32

Drive to Defend characteristics

• Need to protect ourselves
• Reactive (not proactive) drive
• Basis of fight or flight

33

Four Drives Affect

Motivation

34

Four drives determine which _____ are automatically tagged to incoming information


emotions

35

Drives generate _____ and often _____ emotions that demand our attention

independent, competing

36

_____ skill set relies on social norms, personal values and _____ to transform drive-based emotions into _____-directed choice and effort

Mental, experience, goal

37

Social norms, personal values and experience transform drive-based emotions into

goal-directed choice and effort

38

Four-drive theory implies that there is a provision of balanced opportunity for employees to fulfil all four drives as employees continually seek fulfilment of

drives avoid having conditions support one drive more than others

39

Expectancy of Motivation

E-P expectancy

P-O expectancy

Valence

40

Ways of Increasing E–to–P Expectancies

• Develop employee competencies
• Match employee competencies to jobs
• Provide role clarity and sufficient resources
• Provide behavioural modelling

41

• Measure performance accurately
• Increase rewards with desired outcomes
• Explain how rewards are linked to performance


Ways of Increasing P–to–O Expectancies

42

Ways of Increasing Outcome Valences

• Ensure that rewards are valued
• Individualise rewards
• Minimise countervalent outcomes

43

A-B-Cs of Behaviour Modification

• Antecedents
• Behaviour
• Consequences

44

Antecedents is what happens before the

behaviour (warning light on operator console)

45

What the person says or does (e.g.)

Operator switches off the machine power source

46

Consequences are what happens after the

behaviour (cowries thanks operate for stopping machine)

47

OB mod

Organisational behaviour modification

48

A theory that explains employee behaviour in terms of the antecedent conditions and the consequences of that behaviour.

OB mod

49

Four OB Mod Consequences

• Positive reinforcement
• Punishment
• Negative reinforcement
• Extinction

50

A consequence that when introduces, increases/maintains the target behaviour

Positive reinforcement

51

A consequence that decreases the target behaviour

Punishment

52

consequence that, when removed, increases/maintains target behaviour

Negative reinforcement

53

when no consequence occurs, resulting in less of the target behaviour

Extinction

54

Behaviour modification applications:

• Every day to influence behaviour of others
• Company programs: attendance, safety, etc.

55

Behaviour modification problems:

• Reward inflation
• Variable ratio schedule viewed as gambling
Ignores relevance of cognitive processes in motivation and learning

56

A theory that explains how learning and motivation occur by observing and modelling others as well as by anticipating the consequences of our behaviour

Social cognitive theory

57

Learning behaviour outcomes

• Observing consequences that others experience
• Anticipating consequences of our behaviour

58

In an expectancy theory terms learning behaviour outcomes change

a person's perceived P-O probability

59

outcome =

consequences

60

• Observing and modelling behaviour of others


Behaviour Modelling

61

Intentional, purposive action: develop goals, achievement standards, action plans
Form expectancies (anticipate consequences) from others, not just from own experiences
Reinforce own behaviour (self-reinforcement)

Self-regulation

62

Goal Setting

The process of motivating employees and clarifying their role perceptions by establishing performance objectives

63

Effective Goal Setting Characteristics

Specific
Measurable
Achievable
Relevant
Time-framed
Exciting
Reviewed

64

Specific—

what, how, where, when and with whom the task needs to be accomplished

65


Measurable—

how much, how well, at what cost

66


Achievable—

challenging, yet accepted (E–to–P)

67

Relevant—

within employee’s control

68


Time-framed—

due date and when assessed

69

Exciting—

employee commitment, not just compliance

70

Reviewed

employee commitment, not just compliance

71

Smarter =

Specific
Measurable
Achievable
Relevant
Time-framed
Exciting
Reviewed

72

A goal setting and reward system

Balanced scorecard

73

Balanced scorecard

Attempts to include measurable performance goals related to financial, customer, internal and learning/growth (i.e., human capital) processes

74

BSC translates the organisation's vision and mission into

specific, measurable KPI's.

75

Characteristics of Effective Feedback

Specific
Relevant
Timely
Credible
Sufficiently frequent

76

Characteristics of Effective Feedback - Specific

connected to goal details

77

Characteristics of Effective Feedback - Relevant

relates to person’s behaviour

78

Characteristics of Effective Feedback - Timely

to improve link from behaviour to outcomes

79

Characteristics of Effective Feedback - Credible

from trustworthy source

80

Characteristics of Effective Feedback - Sufficiently frequent.

Employee’s knowledge and/or experience
Task cycle

81

Strengths-Based Coaching Feedback

Maximises the person’s potential by focusing on their strengths rather than weaknesses

82

Strengths-Based Coaching Feedback is motivational because:

People inherently seek feedback about their strengths, not their flaws
Person’s interests, preferences and competencies stabilise over time

83

Multisource Feedback is

Received from a full circle of people around the employee

84

Provides more complete and accurate information

Multisource Feedback

85

Several challenges of Multisource Feedback

Expensive and time-consuming
Ambiguous and conflicting feedback
Inflated rather than accurate feedback
Stronger emotional reaction to multiple feedback

86

Organisational Justice

Distributive Justice
Procedural Justice

87

Perceived fairness in outcomes we receive relative to our contributions and the outcomes and contributions of others

Distributive Justice

88

Procedural Justice is

Perceived fairness of the procedures used to decide the distribution of resources

89

Non-social feedback is feedback that is provided

without a person communicating the information - electronic indicators

90

Social feedback is multi-source (360) collected from

subordinates, peers, supervisors and customers

91

Elements of Equity Theory

outcome/input ratio
comparison other
equity evaluation
consequences of inequity

92

outcome/input ratio is

Inputs: what employee contributes (e.g. skill)
Outcomes: what employee receives (e.g. pay)

93

Comparison other is

the person/people against whom we compare our ratio
Not easily identifiable

94

Equity evaluation is

to compare outcome/input ratio with the comparison other

95

(6) Inputs are

skills
effort
reputation
performance
experience
hours worked

96

(5) Outcomes are

what employees receive from the organisation
pay
promotions
recognition
interesting jobs
opportunities to improve skills.

97

value of the outcomes you receive divided by the value of your inputs that is provided in the exchange relations hip

outcome/input ratio

98

Inequity tension is defined as

the tension experienced when a person feels they are under/over rewarded.

99

emotions are the engine of what

motivation

100

Reduce our inputs - Less organisational citizenship
Increase our outcomes - ask for a pay rise
Increase other's inputs - Ask co-worker to work harder
Reduce other’s outputs - Ask boss to stop giving preferred treatment to co-worker
Change our perceptions - Start thinking that co-worker’s perks aren’t really so valuable
Change comparison other - Compare self to someone closer to your situation
Leave the field - quit job
These all lead to correcting




Inequity Tension

101

Procedural Justice is the perceived fairness of

procedures used to decide the distribution of resources

102

These all lead to greater ______
Voice
Unbiased decision maker
Decision based on all information
Apply existing policies consistently
Decision maker listened to all sides
Those who complain are treated respectfully
Those who complain are given full explanation

procedural fairness

103

Motivation

the forces within a person that affects his or her direction, intensity and persistence of voluntary behaviour

104

To bring Maslow’s need hierarchy theory of motivation in synchronization with empirical research, Clayton Alderfer redefined it in his own terms. His rework is called as ERG theory of motivation. There are 3 underlying principles

Existence needs
Relatedness needs
Growth needs

105

- These include need for basic material necessities. In short, it includes an individual’s physiological and physical safety needs.

Existence needs

106

- These include the aspiration individual’s have for maintaining significant interpersonal relationships (be it with family, peers or superiors), getting public fame and recognition. Maslow’s social needs and external component of esteem needs fall under this class of need.

Relatedness needs

107

- These include need for self-development and personal growth and advancement. Maslow’s self-actualization needs and intrinsic component of esteem needs fall under this category of need.

Growth needs

108

ERG Theory states that at a given point of time, more than one need may be

_______

109

In 1959, Frederick Herzberg, a behavioural scientist proposed a two-factor theory or the motivator-hygiene theory. According to Herzberg there are some job factors that result in

satisfaction while there are other job factors that prevent dissatisfaction.