Week 5 - Liver, biliary tree and pancreas anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 5 - Liver, biliary tree and pancreas anatomy Deck (39):
1

What structures lie posterior to the liver?

-Oesophagus
-Stomach
-Gall bladder
-1st part of duodenum

2

Descrube the diaphragmatic surface of the liver

-Smooth and convex with a bare area which is not covered by visceral peritoneum

3

Describe the ligaments of the liver

-Falciform -> anterior liver to anterior abdominal wall and contains ligamentum teres
-Coronary ligament -> superior liver to diaphragm
-Triangular ligaments ->outside of coronary ligament and attach superior surface to diaphragm

4

What is ligamentum teres?

-Remnant of umbilical vein

5

Describe the relationship between liver and lesser omentum

-attached to liver via hepatoduodenal and hepatogastric ligaments of lesser omentum

6

how is the liver secured to the IVC?

-Posteriorly by hepatic veins and fibrous tissue

7

What is the name of the capsule of the liver?

-Glisson's capsule

8

What is a hepatic recess? Name the hepatic recesses and their locations

-Hepatic recesses are spaces between the liver and its surroundings
-Subphrenic -> between diaphragm and liver
-Subhepatic-> between inferior liver and transverse colon
-Morrison's pouch -> between posterior liver and right kidney

9

Why are hepatic recess of interest?

-Fluids can collect in these spaces

10

Describe the lobes of the liver

-Right and left lobes diveded by falciform
-Caudate lobe on superior posterior right lobe
-Quadrate lobe on inferior posterior right lobe between gall bladder and fossa of ligamentum teres

11

What is the porta hepatis?

-Between caudate and quadrate lobe
-Transmits all vessels, nerves and ducts entering/leaving the liver

12

Describe the arterial supply to the liver

-Hepatic artery proper derived from common hepatic artery of celiac trunk

13

Describe the venous drainage to and from the liver

-Hepatic portal vein supplies the liver with all deoxygenated blood carrying nutrients absorbed from small intestine
-3 hepatic veins take clean blood to IVC

14

What converges to make portal vein?

-SMA
-Splenic vein

15

State the nerve supply to the liver

-Symp = celiac plexus
-Parasym = vagus

16

Describe splenic rupture

-Often caused by blunt/penetrating trauma or left rib fractures
-Break in fibroelastic capsule causes profuse bleeding

17

What is the function of the gall bladder?

-Store bile

18

Describe the connections of the biliary tree

-Left and right hepatic ducts form common hepatic bile duct from liver which becomes common bile duct after cystic duct joins
-Common bile duct goes into amuplla of varter after pancratic duct joins
-Enters 2nd part of duodenum through major duodenal papilla controlled by sphincter of oddi

19

To what organ is the biliary tree bound?

-Posterior liver

20

What artery supplies the gall bladder and billary tree? From where is it derived?

-Cystic artery
-Hepatic artery proper

21

What is the result of parasympathetic innervation to gall bladder?

-Contraction and secretion

22

Which hormone has a major secretory effect on the gall bladder?

-Cholecystokinin

23

From where is cholecystokinin secreted?

-Duodenum

24

What are the common complications of gallstones?

-Pain
-Jaundice
-Cholecystitis

25

What are the 3 types of gall stones?

-Cholesterol
-Pigment
-Mixed

26

What are risk factors for gall stones?

-High cholesterol
-Increased age
-Pregnancy
-Obesity

27

In who are gall stones more common?

-Women

28

What is the treatment for gallstones?

-Lifestyle changes
-Cholecystectomy

29

What is the function of the spleen?

-To filter blood and remove old RBCs

30

Where is the spleen?

-Intraperitoneal organ in ULQ behind ribs 9-11

31

Can the spleen be palpated in a healthy patient?

-No

32

What is the exocrine function of the pancreas?

-Secrete digestive enzymes

33

What is the endocrine function of the pancreas?

-Secrete hormones

34

Where is the pancreas?

-Retroperitoneal
-Posterior to stomach with head in duodenum and tail in splenic hilum

35

Where is the unicate process of the pancreas?

-Neck overlying SMA/SMV

36

Describe how the digestive enzymes enter the duodenum

-Acini secrete digestive enzymes into intralobular collecting ducts which join to form the pancreatic duct which unites with common bile duct

37

Name the structures in the porta hepatis

-Hepatic portal vein, common hepatic artery and common bile duct

38

What arteries supply the pancreas?

-superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal

39

Describe the location of the liver

-Peritoneal organ in RUQ (right hypochondrium to epigastrium)