Week 5 - Muscle & Soft Tissue Length Flashcards Preview

DPT730: Physical Therapy Examination > Week 5 - Muscle & Soft Tissue Length > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 5 - Muscle & Soft Tissue Length Deck (51):
1

Full ROM across a joint is dependent on 2 components:

1. Joint ROM
2. Muscle Length

2

Where is Range of Motion and Muscle Length in the Guide to Physical Therapist practice?

Test and Measurements

3

Muscle Length and Flexibility are often used synonymously to describe ____

the ability of a muscle to be lengthened to end of available ROM

4

T/F: Clinically we can measure muscle length directly.

False - Clinically Muscle length is NOT measured directly.

5

How do we measure muscle length clinically?

Indirectly by determining the maximal passive ROM of the joint(s) crossed by the muscle.

6

Muscle length or flexibility refers to ___

the ability of a muscle crossing a joint to lengthen, allowing one joint or a series of joint to move though the available ROM.

7

T/F: Muscle length refers to elongation or lengthening of the muscle to permit FULL joint ROM.

True

8

In most cases when a muscle passes over a single joint, joint ROM and Muscle length will be ___

In most cases when a muscle passes over a single joint, joint ROM and Muscle length will be THE SAME

9

Give an example of a muscle that crosses over a single joint and will have the same joint ROM and Muscle Length.

Ex. Pectoralis Major - Clavicular or Sternal Fibers

10

For muscles that pass over 2 or more joints, the typical amount of muscle length or elongation will be ___ than total ROM of the joints over which the muscle passes.

For muscles that pass over 2 or more joints, the typical amount of muscle length or elongation will be LESS than total ROM of the joints over which the muscle passes.

11

Give an example of a muscle that pass over 2 or more joints, whose length or elongation will be LESS than total ROM of the joints over which the muscle passes.

Knee flexion or prone vs supine

12

Define Static flexibility

defined as the passive ROM available to a joint or series of joints

13

How is Static flexibility measured?

Measured using a goniometer or by a number of tests such as toe touch, sit and reach

14

Decreased static flexibility indicates ____

a loss of motion

15

Define Dynamic flexibility

defined as the degree to which the force of a muscle contraction can move a joint

16

What is an important measurement in Dynamic Flexibility?

stiffness

17

Define Stiffness

a mechanical term defined as the resistance of a structure to deformation

18

What are two ways you can increase stiffness?

1. Strength Training
2. Immobilization

19

Terms to describe muscle flexibility (3)

1. Tightness
2. Adaptive Shortening
3. Contracture

20

Define Tightness

Mild decrease in the length of the muscle after sitting for short periods of time or following exercise.

21

Define Adaptive Shortening

Loss in flexibility that develops in muscles that are maintained in a shortened position.

22

Define Contracture

Marked decrease in the length of the muscle leading to a significant loss of ROM

23

What is required for a Contracture to occur?

requires prolonged period of limited joint motion.

24

Factors Influencing Muscle Length/Flexibility (7)

1. Immobilization
2. Sedentary Living/Inactivity
3. Corticosteroid use
4. Gender
5. Age
6. Injury
7. Temperature

25

How does Immobilization influence muscle length/flexibility?

Weakening of Tissue - secondary to collagen turnover and bond weakening, along with adhesion formation and disorganization of new collagen fibers

26

How does Sedentary Lifestyle/Inactivity influence muscle length/flexibility?

Leads to a reduction in size and number of collage fibers.

27

How does Corticosteroid Use influence muscle length/flexibility?

Decrease in collagen fiber tensile strength

28

How does Gender influence muscle length/flexibility?

Females generally more flexible than males

29

How does Age influence muscle length/flexibility?

Leads to weakening of collage fibers

30

How does Injury influence muscle length/flexibility?

1. Protect the joint following traumatic injury
2. Result of immobilization to allow the injured tissues to rest

31

How does Temperate influence muscle length/flexibility?

As muscle temperature rises, connective tissue becomes more pliable, allowing for more elongation.

32

Soft tissue temperature changes can increase or decrease flexibility by as much as ___

20%

33

Optimal temperature for muscle elongation:

102 degree to 110 degrees

34

Because of the effect of increased temperature, what would be warranted prior to stretching?

warm-up period

35

When we asses muscle length or flexibility, one of the first things we must determine is ___

Are we assessing a muscle passing over one joint vs multiple joints?

36

In most cases, the assessment if muscle length and flexibility is done (PASSIVELY/ACTIVELY)

In most cases, the assessment if muscle length and flexibility is done (PASSIVELY).

37

When assessing Pectoralis Minor, would this be a 1-joint or 2-joint muscle?

1-joint

38

When assessing Biceps-Brachii, would this be a 1-joint or 2-joint muscle?

2-joint

39

T/F: While in most cases, an assessment is done passively, the can also be done actively.

True

40

What is an example of performing a muscle length and flexibility assessment actively?

Supine assessment of hamstring muscle length (90/90 or popliteal angle test)

41

In certain situations if we are attempting to screen a large number of individuals, what can be done?

a composite assessment of muscle length or flexibility

42

What are two examples of composite assessment tests?

1. Apley Scratch
2. "Sit and Reach"

43

Why is a "Sit and Reach" test a composite test?

Not just assessing the flexibility of the hamstring muscle group but also the low back extensors.

44

What are Indications for use of muscle length test?

- suspect Loss of ROM of flexibility
- following Soft tissue injury, overuse injury, or disease processes (osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis)

45

What are Contraindications for use of a muscle length test?

- Acute soft tissue or joint injury (individual may have too much pain to allow us to effectively asses the length or flexibility)
-Acute neurological trauma

46

Passive ROM of a joint is influenced by (3)

1. Muscle length
2. Integrity of joint surfaces
3. Extensibility of capsule, ligaments, fascia, and skin

47

How are Muscles categorized by the number of joints they cross?

One-Joint: Crosses and influences the motion of one joint
Multi-Joint: Crosses and influences the motion of two or more joints

48

Define Passive Insufficiency

When the length (or elongation) of an antagonist muscle is NOT sufficient to allow the agonist to move the joint or joints through full ROM, even with maximal contraction of the agonist.

49

How is muscle length testing used with a passive insufficiency

used to confirm the lack of excursion (or elongation) of antagonist

50

What is an example of using muscle testing with a passive insufficiency?

Thomas Test used to determine if insufficient hip flexor (antagonist) muscle length is present to prevent the assessment of hip extensor (agonist) muscle strength.

51

What are the steps of protocol for assessing muscle length?

1. Patient is placed in correct test position.
2. Physical Therapist must determine if the assessment will be performed passively or actively
3. That the muscle being assessed is placed in a fully elongated (or lengthened position)
-The examiner should be most concerned with final, elongated position of the muscle
4. Palpate the bony landmarks used to align the goniometer and then ensure proper aligned
5. Motion should not be blocked by support surface or pillow