Flashcards in Week 5 - Muscle & Soft Tissue Length Deck (51):
Full ROM across a joint is dependent on 2 components:
1. Joint ROM
2. Muscle Length
Where is Range of Motion and Muscle Length in the Guide to Physical Therapist practice?
Test and Measurements
Muscle Length and Flexibility are often used synonymously to describe ____
the ability of a muscle to be lengthened to end of available ROM
T/F: Clinically we can measure muscle length directly.
False - Clinically Muscle length is NOT measured directly.
How do we measure muscle length clinically?
Indirectly by determining the maximal passive ROM of the joint(s) crossed by the muscle.
Muscle length or flexibility refers to ___
the ability of a muscle crossing a joint to lengthen, allowing one joint or a series of joint to move though the available ROM.
T/F: Muscle length refers to elongation or lengthening of the muscle to permit FULL joint ROM.
In most cases when a muscle passes over a single joint, joint ROM and Muscle length will be ___
In most cases when a muscle passes over a single joint, joint ROM and Muscle length will be THE SAME
Give an example of a muscle that crosses over a single joint and will have the same joint ROM and Muscle Length.
Ex. Pectoralis Major - Clavicular or Sternal Fibers
For muscles that pass over 2 or more joints, the typical amount of muscle length or elongation will be ___ than total ROM of the joints over which the muscle passes.
For muscles that pass over 2 or more joints, the typical amount of muscle length or elongation will be LESS than total ROM of the joints over which the muscle passes.
Give an example of a muscle that pass over 2 or more joints, whose length or elongation will be LESS than total ROM of the joints over which the muscle passes.
Knee flexion or prone vs supine
Define Static flexibility
defined as the passive ROM available to a joint or series of joints
How is Static flexibility measured?
Measured using a goniometer or by a number of tests such as toe touch, sit and reach
Decreased static flexibility indicates ____
a loss of motion
Define Dynamic flexibility
defined as the degree to which the force of a muscle contraction can move a joint
What is an important measurement in Dynamic Flexibility?
a mechanical term defined as the resistance of a structure to deformation
What are two ways you can increase stiffness?
1. Strength Training
Terms to describe muscle flexibility (3)
2. Adaptive Shortening
Mild decrease in the length of the muscle after sitting for short periods of time or following exercise.
Define Adaptive Shortening
Loss in flexibility that develops in muscles that are maintained in a shortened position.
Marked decrease in the length of the muscle leading to a significant loss of ROM
What is required for a Contracture to occur?
requires prolonged period of limited joint motion.
Factors Influencing Muscle Length/Flexibility (7)
2. Sedentary Living/Inactivity
3. Corticosteroid use
How does Immobilization influence muscle length/flexibility?
Weakening of Tissue - secondary to collagen turnover and bond weakening, along with adhesion formation and disorganization of new collagen fibers
How does Sedentary Lifestyle/Inactivity influence muscle length/flexibility?
Leads to a reduction in size and number of collage fibers.
How does Corticosteroid Use influence muscle length/flexibility?
Decrease in collagen fiber tensile strength
How does Gender influence muscle length/flexibility?
Females generally more flexible than males
How does Age influence muscle length/flexibility?
Leads to weakening of collage fibers
How does Injury influence muscle length/flexibility?
1. Protect the joint following traumatic injury
2. Result of immobilization to allow the injured tissues to rest
How does Temperate influence muscle length/flexibility?
As muscle temperature rises, connective tissue becomes more pliable, allowing for more elongation.
Soft tissue temperature changes can increase or decrease flexibility by as much as ___
Optimal temperature for muscle elongation:
102 degree to 110 degrees
Because of the effect of increased temperature, what would be warranted prior to stretching?
When we asses muscle length or flexibility, one of the first things we must determine is ___
Are we assessing a muscle passing over one joint vs multiple joints?
In most cases, the assessment if muscle length and flexibility is done (PASSIVELY/ACTIVELY)
In most cases, the assessment if muscle length and flexibility is done (PASSIVELY).
When assessing Pectoralis Minor, would this be a 1-joint or 2-joint muscle?
When assessing Biceps-Brachii, would this be a 1-joint or 2-joint muscle?
T/F: While in most cases, an assessment is done passively, the can also be done actively.
What is an example of performing a muscle length and flexibility assessment actively?
Supine assessment of hamstring muscle length (90/90 or popliteal angle test)
In certain situations if we are attempting to screen a large number of individuals, what can be done?
a composite assessment of muscle length or flexibility
What are two examples of composite assessment tests?
1. Apley Scratch
2. "Sit and Reach"
Why is a "Sit and Reach" test a composite test?
Not just assessing the flexibility of the hamstring muscle group but also the low back extensors.
What are Indications for use of muscle length test?
- suspect Loss of ROM of flexibility
- following Soft tissue injury, overuse injury, or disease processes (osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis)
What are Contraindications for use of a muscle length test?
- Acute soft tissue or joint injury (individual may have too much pain to allow us to effectively asses the length or flexibility)
-Acute neurological trauma
Passive ROM of a joint is influenced by (3)
1. Muscle length
2. Integrity of joint surfaces
3. Extensibility of capsule, ligaments, fascia, and skin
How are Muscles categorized by the number of joints they cross?
One-Joint: Crosses and influences the motion of one joint
Multi-Joint: Crosses and influences the motion of two or more joints
Define Passive Insufficiency
When the length (or elongation) of an antagonist muscle is NOT sufficient to allow the agonist to move the joint or joints through full ROM, even with maximal contraction of the agonist.
How is muscle length testing used with a passive insufficiency
used to confirm the lack of excursion (or elongation) of antagonist
What is an example of using muscle testing with a passive insufficiency?
Thomas Test used to determine if insufficient hip flexor (antagonist) muscle length is present to prevent the assessment of hip extensor (agonist) muscle strength.