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Flashcards in Week 6 Deck (104):
1

Play

A framing (or orienting context) that is (1) consciously adopted by the players, (2) somehow pleasurable, and (3) systematically related to what is nonplay by alluding to the nonplay world and by transforming the objects, roles, actions, and relations of ends and means characteristic of the nonplay world

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Metacommunication

Communicating about the process of communication itself

3

Framing

A cognitive boundary that marks certain behaviors as “play” or as “ordinary life”

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Reflexivity

Critically thinking about the way One thinks; reflecting on one’s own experience

5

Sport

A physically exertive activity that is aggressively competitive within constraints imposed by definitions and rules. Sport is a component of culture that is ritually patterned and gamelike and consists of varying amounts of play, work, and leisure.

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Athletic

Referring to those activities requiring the greater amount of physical exertion

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Art

Play with form producing some aesthetically successful transformation-representation.

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Form

The rules of the art game: the culturally appropriate restrictions on the way this kind of play may be organized in time and space

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Style

A schema (a distinctive patterning of elements) that is recognized within a culture as appropriate to a given medium

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Media

How the art is created and executed; culturally recognized and characterized

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Transformation-representation

The process in which experience is transformed as it is represented symbolically in a different medium

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Exhibition value

Transforms objects into art one the basis of one person’s willingness to display it

13

Myth

Stories that recount how various aspects of the world came to be the way they are. The power of myths comes from their ability to make life meaningful for those who accept them. The truth of myths seems self-evident because they effectively integrate personal experiences with a wider set of assumptions about how the world works.

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Orthodoxy

“Correct doctrine”; the prohibition of deviation from approved mythic texts

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Ritual

A repetitive social practice composed of a sequence of symbolic activities in the form of dance, song, speech, gestures, or the manipulation of objects, adhering to a culturally defined ritual schema and closely connected to a specific set of ideas that are often encoded in Myth

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Rite of passage

A ritual that serves to mark the movement and transformation of an individual from one social position to another

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Liminality

The ambiguous transitional state in a rite of passage in which the person or persons undergoing the ritual are outside their ordinary social positions

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Communitas

An unstructured or minimally structured community of equal individuals found frequently in rite of passage

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Orthopraxy

“Correct practice”; the prohibition of deviation from approved ritual behavior

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Worldviews

Encompassing pictures of reality created by the members of societies

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Symbol

Something that stands for something else. A symbol signals the presence Of an important domain of experience

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Key metaphors

Metaphors that serve as the function of a worldview

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Societal metaphors

Worldview metaphors whose model for the world is the social order

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Organic metaphors

Worldview metaphors that apply the image of the body to social structures and institutions

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Functionalism

A social scientific perspective in which a society is likened to a living organism in which different systems carry out specialized tasks; functionalists identify social subsystems into which a society can be divided, identify the tasks each is supposed to perform, and describe a healthy society as one in which all the subsystems are functioning harmoniously

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Technological metaphors

A worldview metaphor that employs objects made by human beings as metaphorical predicates

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Religion

Ideas and practices that postulate reality beyond that which is immediately available to the senses

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Shaman

A part-time religious practitioner who is believed to have the power to travel to or contact supernatural forces directly on behalf of the individuals or groups

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Priest

A religious practitioner skilled in the practice of religious rituals, which he or she carries out for the benefit of the group

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Ideology

A worldview that justifies the social arrangements under which people live

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Secularism

The separation of religion and state, including a notion of secular citizenship that owes much to the notion of individual agency developed in Protestant theology

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Syncretism

The synthesis of old religious practices (or an old way of life) with new religious practices (or a new way of life) introduced from outside, often by force

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Revitalization

A conscious, celibate, and organisms attempt by some members of a society to create a more satisfying culture in a time of crisis

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Oracles

Invisible forces to which people address questions and whose responses they believe to be truthful

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Witchcraft

The performance of evil by human beings believed to possess an innate, nonhuman power to do evil, whether or not it’s intentional or self-aware

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Magic

A set of beliefs and practices designed to control the visible or invisible world for specific purposes

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Power

Transformative capacity; the ability to transform a given situation

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Social power

Power that affects and entire social Group

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Interpersonal power

A form of social power; the ability of one individual to impose his or her will on another individual

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Organizational power

A form of social power; highlights how individuals or social units can limit the actions of other individuals in particular social settings

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Structural power

A form of social power; organizes social settings themselves and controls the allocation of social labor

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Political anthropology

The study of social power in human society

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Free agency

The freedom of self-contained individuals to pursue their own interests above everything else and to challenge one another for dominance

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Ideology

A worldview that justifies the social arrangements under which people live

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Domination

Coercive rule

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Hegemony

Persuading subordinates to accept the ideology of the dominant group by mutual accommodations that nevertheless preserve the rulers’ privileged position

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Governmentality

The art of governing appropriate to promoting the welfare of populations within a state

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Resistance

The power to refuse being forced against one’s will to conform to someone else’s wishes

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Consensus

An agree meant to which all parties collectively give their assent

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Persuasion

Power based on verbal argument

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Anomie

A pervasive sense of rootlessness and normlessness in a society

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Alienation

A term used by Karl Marx to describe the deep depression that works seemed to experience between their inner most sense of identity and the labor they were forced to perform in order to earn enough money to live

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Subsistence

The satisfaction of the most basic material survival needs: food, clothing, and shelter

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Subsistence strategies

The patterns of production, distribution, and consumption that members of a society employ to ensure the satisfaction of the basic material survival needs of humans

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Food collectors

Those who gather, fish, or hunt for food

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Food producers

Those who depends on domesticated plants or animals for food

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Extensive agriculture

A form of cultivation based on the technique of cleaning uncultivated land, burning the brush, and planting the crops in the ash-enriched soil, which requires moving farm plots every few years as the soil becomes exhausted

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Intensive agriculture

A form of cultivation that employs plows, draft animals, irrigation, fertilizer, and such to bring much land under cultivation at one time, to use it year after year, and to produce significant crop surpluses

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Mechanized industrial agriculture

Large-scale farming and animal husbandry that is highly dependent on industrial methods of technology and production

60

Economic anthropology

“The part of the discipline that debates issues of human nature that relate directly to the decisions of daily life and making a living”

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The Self-Interested Model

This model of human nature originated during the enlightenment and is based on the assumption that individuals are first and foremost interested in their own wellbeing, that selfishness is natural.

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The Social Model

This view of human nature assumes that people ordinarily identify with the groups to which they belong and, in many cases, cannot even conceive of having a self with interests that diverse from the interests of the group

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Institutions

Stable and enduring cultural practices that organize social life

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Moral model

People’s motivations are shaped by culturally specific belief systems and values guided by a culturally patterned view of the universe and the human place within it

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Production

The transformation of nature’s raw materials into a form suitable for human use

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Distribution

The allocation of goods and services

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Consumption

The using up of material goods necessary for human survival

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Neoclassical economics

A formal attempt to explain the workings of capitalist enterprise, which particular attention to distribution

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Modes of exchange

Patterns according to which distribution takes place: reciprocity, redistribution, and market exchange

70

Reciprocity

The exchange of goods and services of equal value. Anthropologists distinguish three forms of reciprocity: generalized, in which neither the time nor the value of the return is specified; balanced, in which a return of equal value is expected within a specified time limit; and negative, in which parties to the exchange hope to get something for nothing

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Redistribution

Mode of exchange that requires some form of centralized social organization to receive economic contributions from all members of the group and to redistribute them in such a way that every group member is provided for

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Market exchange

The exchange of goods (trade) calculated in terms of a multipurpose medium of exchange and standard of value (money) and carried on by means of a supply-demand-price mechanism (the market)

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Labor

The activity linking human social groups to the material world around them; from the point of view of Karl Marx, labor is therefore always social labor

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Mode of production

A specific, historically occurring set of social relations through which labor is deployed to wrest energy from nature by means of tools, skills, organization, and knowledge

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Means of production

The tools, skills, organization, and knowledge used to extract energy from nature

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Relations of production

The social relations linking the people who use a given means of productions within a particular mode of production

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Ecology

The study if the ways in which living species relate to one another and to their natural environment

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Eco zone

The particular mix of plant and animal species occupying any particular region of the earth

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Affluence

The condition of having more than enough of whatever is required to satisfy consumption needs

80

Feminism

The argument that women and men are equally human and therefore that women are entitled to enjoy the same rights and privileges as men

81

Patriarchy

The domination of men over women and children

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Sexism

The systematic sociocultural structures and practices of inequality, derived from patriarchal institutions, that continue to shape relations between women and men (based on the analogy with racism)

83

Public/private divide

The barrier that law and custom erected between “private” domestic life in the family, conceived as the “women’s place,” and public life, outside the family, conceived as the domain of men

84

Sex

The physical characteristics that traditionally distinguish males from females (for example, body shape, distribution of body hair, reproduction five organs, sex chromosomes

85

Gender

The culturally constructed roles assigned to males or females, which vary considerably from society to society

86

Gender binary

A dual gender categorization separating all women from all men

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Androgyny

A condition in which an individual person possesses both male and female characteristics

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Men’s studies/masculinities

Research that focuses on the many different ways of being a man that can be identified in different places and times

89

Intersectionality

The notion that institutional forms of oppression organized in terms of race, class, and gender are interconnected and shape the opportunities and constraints available to individuals in any society

90

Gender performativity

The concept that gender is something we “perform” or “enact,” something we “do,” not something we “are”

91

Transvestism

The practice of dressing and taking on mannerisms associated with a gender other than one’s own

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Affect

Visceral arousal, emotion, or feeling

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Cyborg

A cybernetic organism, part machine and part living organism

94

Intersex/disorder of sexual development

Individuals who possess ambiguous genitalia; many who experience this condition prefer to describe it as a disorder of sexual development

95

Sexuality

The ways in which people experience and value physical desire and pleasure in the context of sexual intercourse

96

Heterosexuality

The view that “natural” sexual attraction, leading to “natural” sexual intercourse, occurs only between males and females

97

Heteronormativity

The view that heterosexual intercourse is (and should be) the “normal” form that human sexual expression always takes

98

Heterosexism

A form of bias (like sexist bias) against all those who are not heterosexual

99

Homosexuality

The heteronormative opposite of heterosexuality; that is, sexual relations involving two men or two women

100

Gay

An affirmative and empowering self-designation for individuals medically classified as homosexual, which became widespread over the course of the twentieth century

101

Lesbian

A term used to describe female same sex sexuality around the turn of the twentieth century; based of the name of the Greek island of Lesbos, the home of the female poet Sappho, who was reputed to love women rather than man

102

Bisexuality

Sexual attractive to both males and females

103

Transgender

A term proposed in the 1960s by medical researchers to classify individuals who, in one way or another, seemed dissatisfied with the sec and gender assignments they received at birth

104

Queer

A self-identification claimed by some persons whose gender identities or sexual practices fall outside the range defined by “the heterosexual-homosexual continuum”