Week 6- Chemical Mediators/Signal Transduction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 6- Chemical Mediators/Signal Transduction Deck (41):
1

the receiving cell, which could be another nerve, a muscle, or a gland cell

postsynaptic cell

2

name two lipid-soluble hormones

steroid and thyroid

3

Second messenger activation through signal transduction pathways alter protein structure through ______ and ______

Kinase activation (add/take away a phosphate)

Covalent modulation (change function or productivity of a protein)

4

what does DAG do?

activates protein kinase C (PKC) , which phosphorylates a lot of different proteins in the cell, causing multiple effects

5

Absorptive Stage

Digestion, carried through the villi in bloodstream, glucose stored in liver, signaling an insulin response, getting glucose into cell

6

Neurohormones in adrenal medulla are _______

  • Made on the spot
  • Stored ahead of time

Stored ahead of time in secretory vesicles for rapid use later on

7

estrogen/testosteron aldosterone cortisol

steroid hormones and are lipid soluble

8

A neurotransmitter is an example of _______

  • autocrine
  • paracrine
  • endocrine

paracrine

9

Post-absorptive Stage

Blood sugar drops and starts to release energy from stores, pancreas releases glucagon, sends message to liver to change glycogen into glucose to be made available.

10

How do endocrine signals (hormones and neurohormones) travel once released by the cell?

Through the blood to their target cell

11

name two water-soluble hormones

peptide and catecholamine

12

______ are released by nerve cells but require the blood for transport to a target

neurohormones

13

How do nerve signals (neurotransmitters) travel once released by the cell?

Across the synapse to the postsynaptic cell

14

a neurotransmitter that operates in the neuromuscular junction

acetylcholine

15

_____ add phosphates to proteins, altering their confirmation, thus potentially their function

Kinases

16

the nerve cell that releases the neurotransmitter

presynaptic cell

17

Name the 3 important second messenger pathways

1. cAMP formed from activation of effector adenylate cyclase 2. IP3 and DAG formed from activation of PKC (phospholipase C). IP3 acts to increase calcium release from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum 3. Calcium, which can enter from outside the cell or from the ER via IP3 activation, can bind calmodulin

18

The hormone-secreting cell

Effector Cell

19

The hormone-receiving cell

Target Cell

20

_____hormones cannot be synthesized in advanced and stored, and they are made "on demand" and are not synthesized until the stimulus for release is received by the endocrine cell

Lipid-soluble hormones

21

General response to these signals is to alter gene transcription, often find their receptors in cytoplasm or nucleus

lipid-soluble signals

22

insulin and glucagon, hypothalamic-releasing factors

peptide hormones and are water soluble

23

A single enzyme molecule can convert multiple substrates into products via the phosphorylation of cellular proteins , this is important because they serve to amplify an initial signal many times over in the cell, producing multiple outcomes from one original signal

Enzyme Cascade

24

adenylate cyclase uses ATP to make _______

cAMP

25

Where is norepinephrine released from?

The adrenal medulla

26

3 examples of neurotransmitters

norepinephrine serotonin dopamine

27

Stimulation usually results in the increase in _____ and _____ levels in the cell, which activates kinases and convert cholesterol into steroid hormones in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of the cell

calcium and cAMP

28

secreted by the same cell, which is the target cell

autocrines

29

Long-term response to stress (ACTH) is made in the _____

adrenal cortex

30

_____ have different chemical properties that influence their synthesis, release, transport, and location of the receptor on their target cell

Hormones

31

insulin released from the pancreas or cortisol released from the adrenal cortex are examples of?

hormones

32

a cell targets a distant cell through the bloodstream

endocrine

33

what does IP3 do?

Opens calcium channels by targeting the outer membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum making them leaky to calcium

34

Secreted by an effector cell into the extracellular space and act on a target cell nearby

paracrines

35

Short-term response to stress (epinephrine and norepinephrine) is made in the ______

adrenal medulla

36

are lipid soluble and go directly to nucleus

steroid hormones

37

name of effector protein

adenylate cyclase

38

______ is a neurohormone and is released from the adrenal medulla

Norepinephrine

39

_____ hormones are synthesized in advance, since they are not soluble in lipids, they can be stored in secretory vesicles until release is triggered

Water-soluble hormones 

40

Find receptors on surface of cell and often activate the signal transduction pathways

Water-soluble signals

41

are water soluble and attach to cell membrane

catecholemines