Week 8 Chapter 9 Communicating in teams and Organisations. Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 8 Chapter 9 Communicating in teams and Organisations. Deck (57):
1

The process by which information is transmitted and understood between two or more people

Communication defined

2

Effective communication is

Transmitting intended meaning (not just symbols)

3

The importance of communication

Coordinating work activities
Organisational learning
Decision making
Change behaviour
Employee wellbeing

4

Communication transmission is no longer affected by 'noise' T or F?

T

5

_____ arises from the psychological, social and structural barriers that distort and obscure the sender's message. Communication is not free flowing.

Noise

6

The words we choose, how we sound and how we look when we speak all convey important information to the other person. Two important messages we convey are about _____, or how we perceive our power and others' power and _____, or the degree to which we set ourselves as apart from others.

status, affiliation

7

It is easier to have an argument on email than it is face-to-face. T or F?

T

8

Social _____ refers to how well a communication channel is approved and supported by the organisation, teams and individuals. One factor in social acceptance is the organisation's and teams norms regarding the use of specific ______ channels.

acceptance, communication

9

The phrase, 'you should do …' is a way of expressing caring. T or F?

T

10

_____ includes silence, but its use and meaning varies from one culture to another. In Japan silence is a way of _____ without upsetting harmony or offending the other person, and silence symbolises respect and indicates that the listener is thoughtfully contemplating what has just been said. In contrast, most people in the United States and many other cultures view silence as a _____ of communication and often interpret long breaks as a sign of disagreement.

Communication, disagreeing, lack

11

Stand-up meetings between executives and staff are a fad that is now dead. T or F

F

12


There are two main Communication channels
1. Verbal:
2. Non-verbal:

Verbal
Non-verbal

13

uses words, and occurs through either written or spoken channels

Verbal Communication Channel

14

any part of communication that does not use words

Non-verbal communication channel

15

The _____ process model suggests communication ______ depends on the ability of the sender and receiver to efficiently and accurately ____ and decode information.

communication, effectiveness, encode

16

There are four main factors that influence the effectiveness of the encoding-decoding process:

Communication Proficiency
Similar codebooks
Shared mental models of communication context
Experience encoding the message

17

Communication is more effective when both parties are skilled and enjoy using the selected communication channel

Communication Proficiency

18

Dictionaries of symbols, language, gestures, idioms and other tools to convey information

Similar codebooks

19

Less communication is required to clarify meaning about the context

Shared mental models of communication context

20

The more experience in communicating about a subject, the more people learn how to transmit information effectively to others.

Experience encoding the message

21

• Internet-based communication
Email has become the medium of choice in most places because:

o Quickly written, edited and transmitted
o Asynchronous (sent and received at different times) so there is no need to coordinate communication sessions
o Reduces some face-to-face and telephone communication but increases communication with people further up the hierarchy

22

some problems with email:

o Poor medium for communicating emotions
o Reduces politeness and respect
o Poor medium for ambiguous, complex and novel situations
o Contributes to information overload

23

What is the essence of good communication?

Transmitting the sender's intended meaning

24

How does email reduce discrimination in the workplace?

It hides people's physical characteristics

25

_____ communication occurs when a receiver is able to receive and understand the message. To accomplish this difficult task the sender must learn to ____ with the receiver, _____ the message, choose an _____ time for the conversation and be descriptive rather than evaluative. Be descriptive, focus on the problem not the person, if you have negative information to convey. People tend to stop listening when the information attacks their self-esteem.

Effective, empathise, repeat, appropriate

26

Communication _____ is likely to blur the richness of a communication medium when computer-mediated channels are used?

proficiency

27

The automatic process of sharing another person’s emotions by mimicking their facial expressions and other non-verbal behaviour

Emotional Contagion

28

Emotional contagion Serves three purposes:

Provides continuous feedback to speaker
Increases emotional understanding of the other person’s experience
Communicates a collective sentiment—sharing the experience as part of the drive to bond

29

Decoding hidden messages: There are two important hidden messages:

Status: how we perceive our own and others’ power
Affiliation: the degree to which we set ourselves apart from others

30

Choosing the best communication channel there is

Social acceptance and media richness

31

Refers to how well the medium to approved and supported by the organisation, team and individuals

Social acceptance

32

Social Acceptance depends partly on _____, but also on _____ preferences for specific communication channels

norms, individual

33

a medium’s data-carrying capacity; that is, the volume and variety of information that can be transmitted during a specific time

Media Richness

34

According to media richness theory, rich media are better than lean media when the communication situation is non-routine and _____.

ambiguous

35

Choosing the wrong medium reduces communication _____

effectiveness.

36

Research supports relevance of media richness for traditional channels (face-to-face meetings, written memos, etc.) but evidence is mixed when computer-mediated communication channels are considered. Three factors seem to override/blur medium’s richness:

1. Ability to multi-communicate with multiple people
2. Communication proficiency
3. Social presence effects: the benefits of media richness channels such as face-to-face communication may be offset by social distractions from the message content (e.g. in a meeting with a CEO, an employee may concentrate more on how they present themselves than on what the CEO is saying

37

the use of facts, logical arguments and emotional appeals to change another person’s beliefs and attitudes, usually for the purpose of changing the person’s behaviou

Persuasion

38

1. It is typically accompanied by non-verbal communication
2. It offers the sender high-quality, immediate feedback about whether the receiver understands and accepts the message which allows the sender to adjust the content and emotional tone
3. People are more persuaded under conditions of high social presence than low social presence
However, written communication can offer more technical details which is valuable when the issue is important to the receiver.

Reasons why spoken communication is more persuasive than written communication

39

Messages can get _____ on their way up or down the corporate hierarchy by deleting or delaying negative information or using less-harsh words.

filtered

40

a condition in which the volume of information received exceeds the person’s capacity to process it. This can be minimised by increasing information processing capacity, reducing job’s information load, or a combination of both.

Information overload

41

High richness is conveyed when channel:

conveys multiple cues
allows timely feedback
allows customised message
permits complex symbols

42

Use rich communication media when the situation is non-routine and _____

ambiguous

43

Spoken communication is more persuasive because it is accompanied by _____ communication and has high quality immediate feedback and has high _____ presence

non-verbal, social

44

Communication Barriers

Perceptions
Filtering
Language
Jargon
Ambiguity
Information overload

45

The 2 Solutions to Managing Information Overload

Increase information processing capacity
Reduce information load

46

Ways to Increase information processing capacity

Learn to read faster
Scan through documents more efficiently
Remove distractions
Time management
Temporarily work longer hours

47

Ways to Reduce Information load

Buffering
Omitting
Summarising

48

Cross-cultural differences in communication

- Voice intonation: loudly, deeply and/or quickly
- Language
- Silence: different cultures are more/less silent
- Conversational overlaps: interrupting someone else’s speech
- Non-verbal
- Interpreting non-verbal meaning
- Importance of verbal versus non-verbal

49

Men and women perceive functions of language differently. Men see conversations as ______ of relative power and status whereas women see conversations as opportunities to strengthen _____ bonds. Men’s use of language is also more task-oriented, and women are more sensitive to non-verbal cues.

negotiations, social

50

Improving Interpersonal Communication

Empathise
Repeat the message
Use multiple communication channels
Use timing effectively
Be descriptive

51

Ways of Improving workplace communication

Workspace design
Internet-based organisational communication
Direct communication with top management:

52

Open space arrangements can increase , but they also have the potential to increase noise, distraction and loss of privacy

.

53

Improving Workplace Communication

Internet-based organisational communication
- Wikis, collaborative document creation
Direct communication with management
- Management by walking around (MBWA)
- Town hall meetings
Work place design

54

Organisational grapevine early research findings

Transmits information rapidly in all directions
Follows a cluster chain pattern
More active in homogeneous groups
Transmits some degree of truth

55

Organisational grapevine - Changes due to internet

Email becoming the main grapevine medium
Social networks are now global
Public blogs and forums extend gossip to everyone

56

Grapevine Benefits

Fills in missing information from formal sources
Strengthens corporate culture
Relieves anxiety
Signals that problems exist

57

Grapevine Limitations

Distortions might escalate anxiety
Perceived lack of concern for employees when company informtation is slower than grapevine