Week 8 - Tissues Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 8 - Tissues Deck (62):
1

The CFTR is a ___ channel.

Cl-

2

How does a dysfunctional CFTR lead to viscous mucous?

Cl- ions can’t leave the cell -> Influx of Na+ -> Water from the lumen follows -> Thick mucous

3

Identify the following histological features in this photomicrograph of a section of trachea.

1. Hyaline cartilage 

2. Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium

3. Mucous gland 

4. Loose irregular connective tissue

Q image thumb

A: Hyaline cartilage

B: Mucous gland

C: Loose irregular connective tissue

D: Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium

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4

Stereocilia are found in the ___. 

Epididymis 

5

The main function of ___ is motility. 

Cilia 

6

The main function of striated columnar epithelium of the parotid gland is ___. 

Sodium resorption 

7

The main function of microvilli and stereocilia is to ___ surface area for absorption.

Increase 

8

Identify the following histological features in this photomicrograph of a section of small intestine. 

1. Serosa

2. Muscularis externa

3. Submucosa

4. Mucosa 

Q image thumb

A: Muscular externa

B: Submucosa

C: Mucosa

D: Serosa

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9

A baby is born with cystic fibrosis. What support could you suggest to the parents when considering a future pregnancy? 

Prenatal screening

10

A 33-year old woman presents to her GP with a lump in her right breast. By what method would you collect a biopsy? Needle

Needle

11

Which structure limits the migration of carcinoma cells from an epithelium? 

Basement membrane

12

A 33-year old woman presents to her GP with a lump in her right breast. Which histological stain would most effectively detect this structure? 

Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)

13

Mammary ducts are lined with ___ epithelium.

Simple cuboidal 

14

Identify the four types of epithelia presented in the following images. 

1. Stratified squamous non-keratinized

2. Simple columnar

3. Transitional 

4. Simple squamous 

Q image thumb

A: Transitional
B: Simple squamous 
C: Simple columnar
D: Stratified squamous non-keratinized

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15

Describe contact inhibition. 

Regulatory mechanism where cells stop proliferating upon contact with another cell, keeping the cells one layer thick 

16

BRCA1 and BRCA2 are ___ suppressor genes. 

Tumour 

17

List 3 properties of tumour suppressor genes.

1. Promotion of DNA repair 

2. Promotion of apoptosis 

3. Inhibition of cell cycle progression

18

A ___ mutation occurs spontaneously. 

Sporadic

19

A germline mutation is ___ from one or both parents. 

Inherited

20

List 3 types of connective tissue found in lymph nodes. 

1. Blood cells

2. Reticular fibres

3. Dense irregular connective tissue

21

What type of connective tissue forms a supportive stroma (framework) to support lymphocytes?

Reticular fibres

22

What type of connective tissue provides physical protection and divides organs into lobules?

Dense irregular connective tissue

23

Lipid is released from the cells of the mammary gland epithelium via ___ secretion. 

Apocrine

24

The contraction of which type of cell promotes the secretion of breast milk?

Myoepithelial

25

Define distal in anatomical terms. 

Further from the point of origin

26

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is also known as type ___ osteoporosis. 

1

27

Senile osteoporosis is also known as type ___ osteoporosis. 

2

28

Type ___ osteoporosis is associated with decreased estrogen. 

1

29

Type ___ osteoporosis is age-related. 

2

30

Type ___ osteoporosis results from increased osteoclast activity. 

1

31

Type ___ osteoporosis results from decreased osteoblast activity.

2

32

Estrogen ___ osteoclasts. 

Inhibits

33

At what age is peak bone density reached? 

25-30

34

What TYPE of bone is disproportionately impacted in osteoporosis? 

Spongy (trabecular)

35

Identify the features in this photomicrograph of a section of GROUND BONE using terms from the following list: Haversian canal, Volkmann’s canal, canaliculi, osteoblast, osteoclast, osteocyte, lamella of compact bone, and periosteum.

Q image thumb

A: Cacaliculi 

B: Lamella of compact bone 

C: Haversian canal 

D: Osteocyte 

A image thumb
36

What class of drugs is used to treat patients with disorders of bone metabolism?

Bisphosphonates

37

What is the first stage of bone repair? 

Hematoma 

38

What is the second stage of bone repair? 

Formation of fibrocartilaginous callus

39

What is the third stage of bone repair? 

Formation of bony callus 

40

What is the fourth stage of bone repair?

Remodelling

41

Diabetes need NOT reduce their intake of ___ fish. 

Oily 

42

In addition to BMI, list 3 measurements a dietician might perform.

1. Skin fold thickness 

2. Waist-to-hip ratio 

3. Upper arm circumference 

43

What is formula for BMI? 

A image thumb
44

The hormone ___ regulates Na+ resorption by the DCT of the kidneys, controlling salt/water balance.

Aldosterone

45

Features of type ___ diabetes include autoimmune etiology and destruction of pancreatic islet cells (usually in childhood). 

1

46

Features of Type ___ diabetes include chronic insulin over-production, beta cell damage, and acquired insulin resistance. 

2

47

HbA1C provides an indicator of blood glucose over ___ months. 

3

48

Glycosylated hemoglobin is known as ___. 

HbA1C

49

Myelination ___ the speed at which nerve impulses are propagated. 

Increases 

50

Axon ___ increases the speed at which nerve impulses are propagated. 

Diameter

51

Define fusiform. 

Wide in the middle and tapered at each end

52

What type of muscle has fusiform cells? 

Smooth 

53

Characteristics of ___ muscle include striations and multiple, peripheral nuclei.

Skeletal

54

What is the function of oligodendrocytes?

Myelinate axons 

55

What is the function of microglia? 

Immune response (i.e., macrophages) 

56

What is the function of astrocytes?

Maintain the blood-brain barrier 

57

Ependymal cells line the ___ canal

Central 

58

What is the function of ependymal cells? 

Produce CSF

59

Influx of ___ at nerve terminals stimulates neuro-transmitter release.

Ca+

60

Identify the structures in the following histological section through the spinal cord.

A. Meninges

B. Gray matter

C. White matter 

D. Dorsal nerve root 

Q image thumb

1. Dorsal nerve root 

2. Meninges

3. White matter

4. Gray matter

A image thumb
61

Name the structure indicated at 2.

Q image thumb

T-tubule

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62

Match the number with the event taking place. 

A) Release of Ca+ ions from the SR

B) Neurotransmitter release 

C) Propagation of action potentials deep into fibres

Q image thumb

1. Neurotransmitter release 

2. Propagation of action potentials deep into fibres 

3. Release of Ca+ ions from the SR

A image thumb