The CFTR is a ___ channel.
How does a dysfunctional CFTR lead to viscous mucous?
Cl- ions can’t leave the cell ->
Influx of Na+ ions ->
Water follows ->
Thick, dehydrated mucous
Identify the following histological features in this photomicrograph of a section of trachea.
1. Hyaline cartilage
2. Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium
3. Mucous gland
4. Loose irregular connective tissue
A: Hyaline cartilage
B: Mucous gland
C: Loose irregular connective tissue
D: Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium
Where are stereocilia found?
What is the main function of cilia?
What is the main function of striated columnar epithelium of the parotid gland?
The main function of microvilli and stereocilia is to ___ surface area for absorption.
Identify the following histological features in this photomicrograph of a section of small intestine.
2. Muscularis externa
A: Muscular externa
A baby is born with cystic fibrosis. What support could you suggest to the parents when considering a future pregnancy?
A 33-year old woman presents to her GP with a lump in her right breast. By what method would you collect a biopsy?
Which structure limits the migration of carcinoma cells from an epithelium?
A 33-year old woman presents to her GP with a lump in her right breast. Which histological stain would most effectively detect this structure?
Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)
What type of epithelium lines mammary ducts?
Identify the four types of epithelia presented in the following images.
1. Stratified squamous non-keratinized
2. Simple columnar
4. Simple squamous
B: Simple squamous
C: Simple columnar
D: Stratified squamous non-keratinized
Describe contact inhibition.
Regulatory mechanism where cells stop proliferating upon contact with another cell, keeping the cells one layer thick
BRCA1 and BRCA2 are ___ suppressor genes.
List 3 properties of tumour suppressor genes.
1. Inhibition of cell cycle progression
2. Promotion of apoptosis
3. Promotion of DNA repair
Compare sporadic and germline mutations.
Sporadic: arise randomly
Germline: genetically inherited
List 3 types of connective tissue found in lymph nodes.
1. Dense irregular connective tissue
2. Reticular fibres
3. Blood cells
What type of connective tissue forms a supportive framework (i.e., stroma) to support lymphocytes?
What type of connective tissue provides physical protection and divides organs into lobules?
Dense irregular connective tissue
Lipid is released from mammary gland epithelium via which type of secretion?
The contraction of which type of cell promotes the secretion of breast milk?
Define distal in anatomical terms.
Further from the point of origin
Postmenopausal osteoporosis is also known as type ___ osteoporosis.
Senile osteoporosis is also known as type ___ osteoporosis.
Type ___ osteoporosis is associated with decreased estrogen.
Type ___ osteoporosis is age-related.
Type ___ osteoporosis results from increased osteoclast activity.
Type ___ osteoporosis results from decreased osteoblast activity.
Estrogen ___ osteoclasts.
At what age is peak bone density reached?
What type of bone is disproportionately impacted in osteoporosis?
Identify the features in this photomicrograph of a section of ground bone using terms from the following list: Haversian canal, Volkmann’s canal, canaliculi, osteoblast, osteoclast, osteocyte, lamella of compact bone, and periosteum.
B: Lamella of compact bone
C: Haversian canal
What class of drugs is used to treat patients with disorders of bone metabolism?
What is the first stage of bone repair?
What is the second stage of bone repair?
Formation of fibrocartilaginous callus
What is the third stage of bone repair?
Formation of bony callus
What is the fourth stage of bone repair?
Should diabetics reduce their intake of oily fish?
In addition to BMI, list 3 measurements a dietician might perform.
1. Skin fold thickness
2. Waist-to-hip ratio
3. Upper arm circumference
What is the formula for BMI?
The hormone ___ regulates Na+ resorption by the DCT of the kidneys, controlling salt/water balance.
Features of type ___ diabetes include autoimmune etiology and destruction of pancreatic islet cells (usually in childhood).
Features of type ___ diabetes include chronic insulin over-production, beta cell damage, and acquired insulin resistance.
HbA1C provides an indicator of blood glucose over ___ months.
Glycosylated hemoglobin is known as ___.
Myelination ___ the speed at which nerve impulses are propagated.
Axon ___ increases the speed at which nerve impulses are propagated.
Wide in the middle and tapered at each end
What type of muscle has fusiform cells?
Characteristics of ___ muscle include striations and multiple, peripheral nuclei.
What is the function of oligodendrocytes?
What is the function of microglia?
Immune response (i.e., macrophages)
What is the function of astrocytes?
Maintain the blood-brain barrier
Ependymal cells line the ___ canal
What is the function of ependymal cells?
Influx of ___ ions at nerve terminals stimulates neuro-transmitter release.
Identify the structures in the following histological section through the spinal cord.
B. Gray matter
C. White matter
D. Dorsal nerve root
1. Dorsal nerve root
3. White matter
4. Gray matter
Name the structure indicated at 2.
Match the number with the event taking place.
A) Release of Ca+ ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
B) Neurotransmitter release
C) Propagation of action potentials deep into fibres
1. Neurotransmitter release
2. Propagation of action potentials deep into fibres
3. Release of Ca+ ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum