Week 8 - Tissues Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 8 - Tissues Deck (61):
1

The CFTR is a ___ channel.

Chloride

2

How does a dysfunctional CFTR lead to viscous mucous?

Cl- ions can’t leave the cell ->

Influx of Na+ ions ->

Water follows ->

Thick, dehydrated mucous

3

Identify the following histological features in this photomicrograph of a section of trachea.

1. Hyaline cartilage 

2. Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium

3. Mucous gland 

4. Loose irregular connective tissue

Q image thumb

A: Hyaline cartilage

B: Mucous gland

C: Loose irregular connective tissue

D: Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium

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4

Where are stereocilia found?

Epididymis 

5

What is the main function of cilia?

Motility

6

What is the main function of striated columnar epithelium of the parotid gland?

Sodium resorption 

7

The main function of microvilli and stereocilia is to ___ surface area for absorption.

Increase 

8

Identify the following histological features in this photomicrograph of a section of small intestine. 

1. Serosa

2. Muscularis externa

3. Submucosa

4. Mucosa 

Q image thumb

A: Muscular externa

B: Submucosa

C: Mucosa

D: Serosa

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9

A baby is born with cystic fibrosis. What support could you suggest to the parents when considering a future pregnancy? 

Prenatal screening

10

A 33-year old woman presents to her GP with a lump in her right breast. By what method would you collect a biopsy? 

Needle

11

Which structure limits the migration of carcinoma cells from an epithelium? 

Basement membrane

12

A 33-year old woman presents to her GP with a lump in her right breast. Which histological stain would most effectively detect this structure? 

Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)

13

What type of epithelium lines mammary ducts?

Simple cuboidal 

14

Identify the four types of epithelia presented in the following images. 

1. Stratified squamous non-keratinized

2. Simple columnar

3. Transitional 

4. Simple squamous 

Q image thumb

A: Transitional
B: Simple squamous 
C: Simple columnar
D: Stratified squamous non-keratinized

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15

Describe contact inhibition. 

Regulatory mechanism where cells stop proliferating upon contact with another cell, keeping the cells one layer thick 

16

BRCA1 and BRCA2 are ___ suppressor genes. 

Tumour 

17

List 3 properties of tumour suppressor genes.

1. Inhibition of cell cycle progression

2. Promotion of apoptosis 

3. Promotion of DNA repair 

18

Compare sporadic and germline mutations.

Sporadic: arise randomly 
Germline: genetically inherited

19

List 3 types of connective tissue found in lymph nodes. 

1. Dense irregular connective tissue

2. Reticular fibres

3. Blood cells

20

What type of connective tissue forms a supportive framework (i.e., stroma) to support lymphocytes?

Reticular fibres

21

What type of connective tissue provides physical protection and divides organs into lobules?

Dense irregular connective tissue

22

Lipid is released from mammary gland epithelium via which type of secretion?

Apocrine

23

The contraction of which type of cell promotes the secretion of breast milk?

Myoepithelial

24

Define distal in anatomical terms. 

Further from the point of origin

25

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is also known as type ___ osteoporosis. 

1

26

Senile osteoporosis is also known as type ___ osteoporosis. 

2

27

Type ___ osteoporosis is associated with decreased estrogen. 

1

28

Type ___ osteoporosis is age-related. 

2

29

Type ___ osteoporosis results from increased osteoclast activity. 

1

30

Type ___ osteoporosis results from decreased osteoblast activity.

2

31

Estrogen ___ osteoclasts. 

Inhibits

32

At what age is peak bone density reached? 

25-30

33

What type of bone is disproportionately impacted in osteoporosis? 

Spongy 

34

Identify the features in this photomicrograph of a section of ground bone using terms from the following list: Haversian canal, Volkmann’s canal, canaliculi, osteoblast, osteoclast, osteocyte, lamella of compact bone, and periosteum.

Q image thumb

A: Cacaliculi 

B: Lamella of compact bone 

C: Haversian canal 

D: Osteocyte 

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35

What class of drugs is used to treat patients with disorders of bone metabolism?

Bisphosphonates

36

What is the first stage of bone repair? 

Hematoma 

37

What is the second stage of bone repair? 

Formation of fibrocartilaginous callus

38

What is the third stage of bone repair? 

Formation of bony callus 

39

What is the fourth stage of bone repair?

Remodelling

40

Should diabetics reduce their intake of oily fish?

No

41

In addition to BMI, list 3 measurements a dietician might perform.

1. Skin fold thickness 

2. Waist-to-hip ratio 

3. Upper arm circumference 

42

What is the formula for BMI? 

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43

The hormone ___ regulates Na+ resorption by the DCT of the kidneys, controlling salt/water balance.

Aldosterone

44

Features of type ___ diabetes include autoimmune etiology and destruction of pancreatic islet cells (usually in childhood). 

1

45

Features of type ___ diabetes include chronic insulin over-production, beta cell damage, and acquired insulin resistance. 

2

46

HbA1C provides an indicator of blood glucose over ___ months. 

3

47

Glycosylated hemoglobin is known as ___. 

HbA1c

48

Myelination ___ the speed at which nerve impulses are propagated. 

Increases 

49

Axon ___ increases the speed at which nerve impulses are propagated. 

Diameter

50

Define fusiform. 

Wide in the middle and tapered at each end

51

What type of muscle has fusiform cells? 

Smooth 

52

Characteristics of ___ muscle include striations and multiple, peripheral nuclei.

Skeletal

53

What is the function of oligodendrocytes?

Myelinate axons 

54

What is the function of microglia? 

Immune response (i.e., macrophages) 

55

What is the function of astrocytes?

Maintain the blood-brain barrier 

56

Ependymal cells line the ___ canal

Central 

57

What is the function of ependymal cells? 

Produce CSF

58

Influx of ___ ions at nerve terminals stimulates neuro-transmitter release.

Ca+

59

Identify the structures in the following histological section through the spinal cord.

A. Meninges

B. Gray matter

C. White matter 

D. Dorsal nerve root 

Q image thumb

1. Dorsal nerve root 

2. Meninges

3. White matter

4. Gray matter

A image thumb
60

Name the structure indicated at 2.

Q image thumb

T-tubule

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61

Match the number with the event taking place. 

A) Release of Ca+ ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum

B) Neurotransmitter release 

C) Propagation of action potentials deep into fibres

Q image thumb

1. Neurotransmitter release 

2. Propagation of action potentials deep into fibres 

3. Release of Ca+ ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum

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