Flashcards in Week 9 - Motivation Deck (75):
What is Motivation?
The driving force behind behaviour
What does motivation do?
Determines aims and goals
The strength of motivation determines what?
The likelihood of achieving a goal
Motivation is influenced by what 2 factors?
Internal and External
Motivation is determined by what 3 things?
What is the Drive Reduction Theory?
How motivation originates from biological needs or drives.
A person's behaviour is an external display of his desire to satisfy his physical deficiencies.
What are primary drives?
Innate needs such as food, water, sex
What are secondary drives?
Drives learned through association with primary drives
What is a limitation of the DRT?
External stimuli can activate drives (eg not hungry til we smell food)
What is the Arousal Theory?
We are motivated to maintain or restore an optimum level of arousal
What is Approach?
Predisposition towards certain stimuli (eg foods)
What is Avoidance?
Predisposition away from certain stimuli (eg menacing animals)
What is the main point raised by the Incentive Theories (what are we motivated by)?
We are motivated by positive goals (desired outcomes)
What is intrinsic motivation?
Behaviour driven by internal reward (eg enjoyment gained from act itself)
What is extrinsic motivation?
Behaviour driven by external reward/benefit
What is an incentive?
A reward or removal of an unpleasant stimulus
What does the Expectancy-Value Theory believe about motivation?
Motivation is influenced by both the value placed on a goal and perceived ability to attain it.
What does the Value part of the Expectancy-Value Theory mean?
Do i want to do this? Is this task worth pursuing?
What does the Expectancy part of the Expectancy-Value Theory mean?
Can I do this? Am I capable of mastering this?
What does the Self-Determination Theory believe about motivation?
Intrinsic motivation is greatest when 3 innate needs are met
What are the 3 needs of the Self-Determination Theory?
Relatedness to others
The Self-Determination Theory believe what about rewards?
They can diminish motivation
What is the relationship between motivation and dopamine?
Dopamine is released when a stimulus is rewarding - this acts as a learning signal to repeat behaviours
What do humanists argue about what motivates behaviour?
Humanists argue that the desire for personal growth motivates behaviour
What is the main point of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs in regards to motivation?
Lower level needs must be met before progressing to more complex needs
The motivation to eat is a complex interaction between what 2 factors?
Physiological and psychological
Damage to what area of the brain decreases hunger?
Damage to what area of the brain increases hunger?
What is the Glucostatic Theory of hunger?
Hunger and satiety is signalled when blood glucose drops/increases
Describe the Set-Point Theory of eating
Individuals have a genetically programmed set point or optimum level of body fat and metabolism that is maintained by homeostatic mechanisms
Limitation of the Set-Point Theory of eating
Cannot explain eating disorders/obesity
Describe the Positive-Incentive Perspective of eating (what is the primary reason for eating)?
The primary reason for eating is the expected pleasure of eating
The expected pleasure of eating is due to what?
physiological and evolutionary mechanisms, learn responses and social influences
What is the Positive-Incentive VALUE meaning?
Anticipated pleasure of performing a particular behaviour
What are (3) Psychosocial factors that explain what motivates us to eat?
Classical conditioning (conditioned to eat at certain times)
Presence of others (likely to eat more in the presence of others)
Anxiety reduction (comfort eating)
What is Leptin Deficiency?
Difficulty recognising when full and store fat more effectively
What us the Melanocortin-4 receptor gene mutation?
The inability to feel full
What is the reward deficiency syndrome?
Hypo-activity in the reward pathways
Excessive eating occurs to?
Increase reward responses
Explain the Internal-External theory of obesity
Obese are more motivated to eat by external cues (smell, taste) rather than internal physiological triggers
What is Binge-eating disorder?
Recurrent binging without purging
Higher level of what are associated with a decreased sex drive?
Higher levels of what are associated with increased sex drive?
What 3 things impact sexual behaviour?
Length of time with partner
Interpersonal attraction is influenced by what 4 things?
proximity and nearness
level of physical attraction
Males place more emphasis on what when looking for a partner?
looks and younger
Females place more emphasis on what when looking for a partner?
financial resources and older
Both males and females place equal emphasis on what when looking for a partner?
The more average a face is =
more highly its rated as attractive
Why the more average a face is, the more it is seen as attractive? (2)
In Sternberg's Triangular theory of love, what are the 4 types of love?
What 2 things are involved in fatuous love?
Passion and committment
What 2 things are involved in romantic love?
passion and intimacy
What 2 things are involved in companionate love?
intimacy and commitment
What 3 things are involved in consummate love?
intimacy, commitment and passion
Sternberg sees hate as consisting of what 3 things?
Negation of intimacy
What type of hatred is high on all 3 aspects?
What is attachment motivation?
Is the need for physical and psychological closeness to others
What is intimacy?
Refers to the need to share a deep level of understanding, communicating and care
What if affiliation?
The need to associated with others on a less intimate level -friendship/acquaintances
What is achievement motivation?
The need to be successful and avoid failure
What are some common things high achievers do?
Select tasks that are reasonably difficult
Tend to be more persistent and take more pride in achieving
tend to attribute past success to themselves and failure to external factors
Achievement motivation is comprised of what 2 things?
What are performance goals the desire to do?
The desire to attain a certain level and focussed on outcome
What are the 2 performance goals?
What are approach goals (what is motivation the desire to do)?
Motivation is the desire to achieve goals
What are avoidance goals (motivation is the desire to do/not do)?
Motivation is the fear of failure
In Mastery goals , the desire is to what?
Desire to improve ability and skills with a more intrinsic value
What are the 3 mastery goals?
Explain High-Performance Approach
Better outcomes but minimal intrinsic interest
Explain High-Performance Avoidance
Poorer outcomes and minimal intrinsic interest
Explain High Mastery
Better outcomes and higher intrinsic interest
What is the physical dependence theory of addiction?
Cycle of taking drug, trying to stop but restarting due to unpleasant withdrawal symptoms
Problems with physical dependence theory of addiction?
Many people with an addiction will have irregular drug-taking routine