Week 9 - Motivation Flashcards Preview

PSY112 - Brain & Behaviour > Week 9 - Motivation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 9 - Motivation Deck (75):
1

What is Motivation?

The driving force behind behaviour

2

What does motivation do?

Determines aims and goals

3

The strength of motivation determines what?

The likelihood of achieving a goal

4

Motivation is influenced by what 2 factors?

Internal and External

5

Motivation is determined by what 3 things?

Experience
Beliefs
Physiological state

6

What is the Drive Reduction Theory?

How motivation originates from biological needs or drives.

A person's behaviour is an external display of his desire to satisfy his physical deficiencies.

7

What are primary drives?

Innate needs such as food, water, sex

8

What are secondary drives?

Drives learned through association with primary drives

9

What is a limitation of the DRT?

External stimuli can activate drives (eg not hungry til we smell food)

10

What is the Arousal Theory?

We are motivated to maintain or restore an optimum level of arousal

11

What is Approach?

Predisposition towards certain stimuli (eg foods)

12

What is Avoidance?

Predisposition away from certain stimuli (eg menacing animals)

13

What is the main point raised by the Incentive Theories (what are we motivated by)?

We are motivated by positive goals (desired outcomes)

14

What is intrinsic motivation?

Behaviour driven by internal reward (eg enjoyment gained from act itself)

15

What is extrinsic motivation?

Behaviour driven by external reward/benefit

16

What is an incentive?

A reward or removal of an unpleasant stimulus

17

What does the Expectancy-Value Theory believe about motivation?

Motivation is influenced by both the value placed on a goal and perceived ability to attain it.

18

What does the Value part of the Expectancy-Value Theory mean?

Do i want to do this? Is this task worth pursuing?

19

What does the Expectancy part of the Expectancy-Value Theory mean?

Can I do this? Am I capable of mastering this?

20

What does the Self-Determination Theory believe about motivation?

Intrinsic motivation is greatest when 3 innate needs are met

21

What are the 3 needs of the Self-Determination Theory?

Competence
Autonomy
Relatedness to others

22

The Self-Determination Theory believe what about rewards?

They can diminish motivation

23

What is the relationship between motivation and dopamine?

Dopamine is released when a stimulus is rewarding - this acts as a learning signal to repeat behaviours

24

What do humanists argue about what motivates behaviour?

Humanists argue that the desire for personal growth motivates behaviour

25

What is the main point of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs in regards to motivation?

Lower level needs must be met before progressing to more complex needs

26

The motivation to eat is a complex interaction between what 2 factors?

Physiological and psychological

27

Damage to what area of the brain decreases hunger?

lateral hypothalamus

28

Damage to what area of the brain increases hunger?

ventromedial hypothalamus

29

What is the Glucostatic Theory of hunger?

Hunger and satiety is signalled when blood glucose drops/increases

30

Describe the Set-Point Theory of eating

Individuals have a genetically programmed set point or optimum level of body fat and metabolism that is maintained by homeostatic mechanisms

31

Limitation of the Set-Point Theory of eating

Cannot explain eating disorders/obesity

32

Describe the Positive-Incentive Perspective of eating (what is the primary reason for eating)?

The primary reason for eating is the expected pleasure of eating

33

The expected pleasure of eating is due to what?

physiological and evolutionary mechanisms, learn responses and social influences

34

What is the Positive-Incentive VALUE meaning?

Anticipated pleasure of performing a particular behaviour

35

What are (3) Psychosocial factors that explain what motivates us to eat?

Classical conditioning (conditioned to eat at certain times)
Presence of others (likely to eat more in the presence of others)
Anxiety reduction (comfort eating)

36

What is Leptin Deficiency?

Difficulty recognising when full and store fat more effectively

37

What us the Melanocortin-4 receptor gene mutation?

The inability to feel full

38

What is the reward deficiency syndrome?

Hypo-activity in the reward pathways

39

Excessive eating occurs to?

Increase reward responses

40

Explain the Internal-External theory of obesity

Obese are more motivated to eat by external cues (smell, taste) rather than internal physiological triggers

41

What is Binge-eating disorder?

Recurrent binging without purging

42

Higher level of what are associated with a decreased sex drive?

Serotonin

43

Higher levels of what are associated with increased sex drive?

Testosterone

44

What 3 things impact sexual behaviour?

Length of time with partner
Age
Cultural norms

45

Interpersonal attraction is influenced by what 4 things?

proximity and nearness
similarity
reciprocity
level of physical attraction

46

Males place more emphasis on what when looking for a partner?

looks and younger

47

Females place more emphasis on what when looking for a partner?

financial resources and older

48

Both males and females place equal emphasis on what when looking for a partner?

intelligence
dependability
kindness

49

The more average a face is =

more highly its rated as attractive

50

Why the more average a face is, the more it is seen as attractive? (2)

Similarity
symmetrical

51

In Sternberg's Triangular theory of love, what are the 4 types of love?

Fatuous
Romantic
Companionate
Consummate

52

What 2 things are involved in fatuous love?

Passion and committment

53

What 2 things are involved in romantic love?

passion and intimacy

54

What 2 things are involved in companionate love?

intimacy and commitment

55

What 3 things are involved in consummate love?

intimacy, commitment and passion

56

Sternberg sees hate as consisting of what 3 things?

Negation of intimacy
Passion
Commitment

57

What type of hatred is high on all 3 aspects?

Burning hatred

58

What is attachment motivation?

Is the need for physical and psychological closeness to others

59

What is intimacy?

Refers to the need to share a deep level of understanding, communicating and care

60

What if affiliation?

The need to associated with others on a less intimate level -friendship/acquaintances

61

What is achievement motivation?

The need to be successful and avoid failure

62

What are some common things high achievers do?

Select tasks that are reasonably difficult
Tend to be more persistent and take more pride in achieving
tend to attribute past success to themselves and failure to external factors

63

Achievement motivation is comprised of what 2 things?

Performance goals
Mastery goals

64

What are performance goals the desire to do?

The desire to attain a certain level and focussed on outcome

65

What are the 2 performance goals?

Approach
Avoidance

66

What are approach goals (what is motivation the desire to do)?

Motivation is the desire to achieve goals

67

What are avoidance goals (motivation is the desire to do/not do)?

Motivation is the fear of failure

68

In Mastery goals , the desire is to what?

Desire to improve ability and skills with a more intrinsic value

69

What are the 3 mastery goals?

High-performance approach
High-performance avoidance
High mastery

70

Explain High-Performance Approach

Better outcomes but minimal intrinsic interest

71

Explain High-Performance Avoidance

Poorer outcomes and minimal intrinsic interest

72

Explain High Mastery

Better outcomes and higher intrinsic interest

73

What is the physical dependence theory of addiction?

Cycle of taking drug, trying to stop but restarting due to unpleasant withdrawal symptoms

74

Problems with physical dependence theory of addiction?

Many people with an addiction will have irregular drug-taking routine

75

Explain the Incentive-Sensitisation theories of addiction

The more a drug is used, the greater positive-incentive value becomes.

Explains why addicted people crave drugs even when they have developed tolerance to the drug