Week Two: Nematodes of Dogs and Cats (Chapter Four) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week Two: Nematodes of Dogs and Cats (Chapter Four) Deck (77):
1

Who do Toxocara canis infect?

Dogs

2

Who do Toxocara cati infect?

Cats

3

Who do Toxascaris leonine infect?

Dog and cats

4

Where is the location of Toxocara canis, cati, and Toxascaris leonine?

Small intestine

5

What does the word "toxocara" mean?

Arrowhead

6

What is the transmission route of Toxocara?

Ingestion of egg with infective second stage larva

7

What is the common name for Toxocara?

Roundworms (canine or feline)

8

What are the large roundworms of dogs and cats called?

Ascarids

9

What is important for puppies and kittens that are presented to a veterinary clinic?

Should be examined for presence of roundworms

10

What do Toxocara look like when they are passed through the feces?

Look tightly coiled resembling a bed spring

Spaghetti looking

11

What are the signs of having ascarids?

Vomiting, diarrhea, constipation

12

Do adult Toxocara (ascarids) attach to the host?

No
They use an undulating motion to remain in the small intestine

13

What can a large quantity of Toxocara (ascarids) cause?

Gastrointestinal obstruction

14

What are some characteristics of Ascarids eggs?

-Unembryonated (need to be fertilized)
-Spherical
-Deeply pigmented center
-Rough, pitted outer shell

15

How long can a Toxocara live outside a host?

Four weeks

16

Explain lifecycle of Toxocara

-Eggs embryonate on ground (4 weeks) (L2 larva)
-Ingested by a host (L2 larvae are released from egg)
-L2 may go into dormancy in adult host
-Grow and migrate to various tissues in host
-Migrate to lungs, coughed up, and swallowed
-Grow to adulthood in small intestine and begin new life cycle

17

What is the one Toxocara that cannot cross the placental barrier to infect hosts offspring?

Toxocara cati

18

What are some common signs of being infected with Toxocara?

Diarrhea, vomiting, pot bellied appearance

19

What are some common effective anthelmintic drugs for Toxocara?

-Panacur (Fenbendazole)
-Nemex (Pyrantel Pamoate)
-Vercom (Febentel + Praziquantel)
-Interceptor (Milbemycin oxime)

20

What is a vermifuge?
What are some examples?

Paralyzes parasite so it passes out in the feces
(Piperazine, Pyrantel Pamoate (Strongid T, Nemex)

21

What is a vermicide?
What is an example?

Kills parasite and allows the parasite to be broken down by the body
Fenbendazole (Panacur)

22

Toxocara canis are visceral larval migrans, what does this mean?

Migrate through organs

23

Who is the host for Ancylostoma caninum?

Canine

24

Who is the host for Ancylostoma tubaeforme?

Feline

25

Who is the host for Ancylostoma braziliense?

Canine and feline

26

Who is the host for Uncinaria stenocephala?

Canine

27

What's the difference between Acylostoma spp and Uncinaria stenocephala?

Acylostoma spp: Curved mouth and straight trumpet shape
Uncinaria: Hooked nose and narrow head

28

What are the transmission routes of Ancylostoma/Uncinaria?

-Ingestion of eggs
-Through the skin
-Across placenta
-Through mammary milk

29

What is the common name of Ancylostoma?

Hookworms (canine or feline)

30

Do Ancylostoma attach to the host?

Yes, attach to intestinal mucosa
-Change feeding sites and reattach elsewhere

31

What and how do Ancylostoma eat?

Feed on blood
Secretes an anticoagulant
(making former attachment sites bleed which can cause anemia)

32

Where do Ancylostoma attach to?

Attach to adjacent villi of intestinal wall

33

Explain life cycle of Ancylostoma

1.Eggs laid in feces
2.L1 larvae hatch, feed, grow, and molt into L2 larvae
3.L2 larvae feed, grow, and molt into L3 larvae
4.L3 can be ingested or penetrate intact skin

34

What do Ancylostoma eggs look like?

-Oval or ellipsoidal
-Thin walled
-Contain 8-16 cell morula when passed in feces

35

What are some treatments/preventions for Ancylostoma?

Heartworm preventatives (monthly)
-Interceptor, heartgard plus
Vermicide
-Mebendazole, Fenbendazole
Remove feces after defecation

36

What is the transmission route for Strongyloides?

Through the skin and mammary milk

37

What is the common name for Strongyloides?

Intestinal threadworms

38

What is unique about Strongyloides?

Male worms do not exist, females produce viable ova without fertilization

39

What is the process called where females produce ova without fertilization?

Parthenogenesis

40

What is the major method of transmission of Strongyloides in the dog?

From mother to offspring through mammary glands

41

What is a prepatent period?

From time of infection to time of diagnosis

42

What is the prepatent period of Strongyloides?

8-14 days

43

Can humans get strongyloidiasis?

Yes

44

Who is the host for Trichuris vulpis?

Canine

45

Who is the host for Trichuris campanula?

Feline

46

Who is the host for Trichuris serrate?

Feline

47

Where are Trichuris found in the body?

Cecum and colon

48

What is the derivation of genus for Trichuris?

Hair tail

49

What is the transmission route of Trichuris?

Ingestion of eggs

50

What is the common name for Trichuris?

Whipworm

51

How did Trichuris get their name?

They have a thin "filamentous" anterior end like a lash of a whip and a thick posterior end like the handle of the whip

52

What does a Trichuris egg look like?

-Trichuroid
-Thick yellow/brown symmetric shell
-Prominent polar plugs at either end
-Unembryonated when laid
(looks like Stewies head)

53

What is the prepatenet period of Trichuris?

70-90 days

54

How are Trichuris eggs passed?

In feces every third day
Eggs are developed in the environment
Eggs MUST be ingested by the host

55

What are some signs of Trichuris?

Diarrhea, anemia, mucus coated stool

56

What type of parasite needs a minimum of 15 min fecal float?

Trichuris

57

What are some treatments and preventions for Trichuris?

Vermicides (Mebendazole, Fenbendazole)

Removal of feces from environment daily

58

Who does Dirofilaria immitis infect?

Canine, feline, ferret

59

Who is the intermediate host for Dirofilaria immitis?

Female mosquito

60

Where in the body are Dirofilaria immitis found?

Right ventricle, pulmonary arteries

61

What type of climate is Dirofilaria immitis usually found?

Warm, temperate climates

62

What is the transmission route of Dirofilaria immitis?

Bite of infective mosquito

63

What is the common name of Dirofilaria immitis?

Heartworm

64

What are microfilariae?

Offspring of Dirofilaria immitis

65

What is the pre-patent period of Dirofilaria immitis?

Approximately 6 months in dogs

66

Explain the life cycle of Dirofilaria immitis

-Female produces microfilariae
-Released into blood stream and ingested by feeding female mosquitos
-Microfil. grow and molt in mosquito
-Enter new host when mosquito feeds

67

What are some tests we use to diagnose Dirofilaria immitis?

Modified Knott's test (not very common)
Elisa test (more common)

68

What are some signs of Dirofilaria immitis?

-Exercise intolerance
-Right sided heart enlargement
-Abdominal ascites
-Coughing

69

What are some ways we can treat Dirofilaria immitis?
what are some post-treatments?

Microfilaricide (Ivermectin)

Microfilariae test, Elisa test

70

What is the host for Aelurostrongylus abstrusus?

Feline

71

Where are Aelurostrongylus abstrusus found in the body?

Respiratory bronchioles and alveolar duct

72

What is the transmission route of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus?

Ingestion of larvae

73

What is the common name of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus?

Feline lungworm

74

What is the host for Filaroides osleri, F. hirthi, F. milksi?

Canine

75

Where are Filaroides spp. found in the body?

Trachea, lung parachyma, bronchioles

76

Where in the world are Filaroides spp. found?

North America, Europe, Japan

77

What is the common name of Filaroides spp.?

Canine lungworm