Flashcards in Week Two: Nematodes of Dogs and Cats (Chapter Four) Deck (77):
Who do Toxocara canis infect?
Who do Toxocara cati infect?
Who do Toxascaris leonine infect?
Dog and cats
Where is the location of Toxocara canis, cati, and Toxascaris leonine?
What does the word "toxocara" mean?
What is the transmission route of Toxocara?
Ingestion of egg with infective second stage larva
What is the common name for Toxocara?
Roundworms (canine or feline)
What are the large roundworms of dogs and cats called?
What is important for puppies and kittens that are presented to a veterinary clinic?
Should be examined for presence of roundworms
What do Toxocara look like when they are passed through the feces?
Look tightly coiled resembling a bed spring
What are the signs of having ascarids?
Vomiting, diarrhea, constipation
Do adult Toxocara (ascarids) attach to the host?
They use an undulating motion to remain in the small intestine
What can a large quantity of Toxocara (ascarids) cause?
What are some characteristics of Ascarids eggs?
-Unembryonated (need to be fertilized)
-Deeply pigmented center
-Rough, pitted outer shell
How long can a Toxocara live outside a host?
Explain lifecycle of Toxocara
-Eggs embryonate on ground (4 weeks) (L2 larva)
-Ingested by a host (L2 larvae are released from egg)
-L2 may go into dormancy in adult host
-Grow and migrate to various tissues in host
-Migrate to lungs, coughed up, and swallowed
-Grow to adulthood in small intestine and begin new life cycle
What is the one Toxocara that cannot cross the placental barrier to infect hosts offspring?
What are some common signs of being infected with Toxocara?
Diarrhea, vomiting, pot bellied appearance
What are some common effective anthelmintic drugs for Toxocara?
-Nemex (Pyrantel Pamoate)
-Vercom (Febentel + Praziquantel)
-Interceptor (Milbemycin oxime)
What is a vermifuge?
What are some examples?
Paralyzes parasite so it passes out in the feces
(Piperazine, Pyrantel Pamoate (Strongid T, Nemex)
What is a vermicide?
What is an example?
Kills parasite and allows the parasite to be broken down by the body
Toxocara canis are visceral larval migrans, what does this mean?
Migrate through organs
Who is the host for Ancylostoma caninum?
Who is the host for Ancylostoma tubaeforme?
Who is the host for Ancylostoma braziliense?
Canine and feline
Who is the host for Uncinaria stenocephala?
What's the difference between Acylostoma spp and Uncinaria stenocephala?
Acylostoma spp: Curved mouth and straight trumpet shape
Uncinaria: Hooked nose and narrow head
What are the transmission routes of Ancylostoma/Uncinaria?
-Ingestion of eggs
-Through the skin
-Through mammary milk
What is the common name of Ancylostoma?
Hookworms (canine or feline)
Do Ancylostoma attach to the host?
Yes, attach to intestinal mucosa
-Change feeding sites and reattach elsewhere
What and how do Ancylostoma eat?
Feed on blood
Secretes an anticoagulant
(making former attachment sites bleed which can cause anemia)
Where do Ancylostoma attach to?
Attach to adjacent villi of intestinal wall
Explain life cycle of Ancylostoma
1.Eggs laid in feces
2.L1 larvae hatch, feed, grow, and molt into L2 larvae
3.L2 larvae feed, grow, and molt into L3 larvae
4.L3 can be ingested or penetrate intact skin
What do Ancylostoma eggs look like?
-Oval or ellipsoidal
-Contain 8-16 cell morula when passed in feces
What are some treatments/preventions for Ancylostoma?
Heartworm preventatives (monthly)
-Interceptor, heartgard plus
Remove feces after defecation
What is the transmission route for Strongyloides?
Through the skin and mammary milk
What is the common name for Strongyloides?
What is unique about Strongyloides?
Male worms do not exist, females produce viable ova without fertilization
What is the process called where females produce ova without fertilization?
What is the major method of transmission of Strongyloides in the dog?
From mother to offspring through mammary glands
What is a prepatent period?
From time of infection to time of diagnosis
What is the prepatent period of Strongyloides?
Can humans get strongyloidiasis?
Who is the host for Trichuris vulpis?
Who is the host for Trichuris campanula?
Who is the host for Trichuris serrate?
Where are Trichuris found in the body?
Cecum and colon
What is the derivation of genus for Trichuris?
What is the transmission route of Trichuris?
Ingestion of eggs
What is the common name for Trichuris?
How did Trichuris get their name?
They have a thin "filamentous" anterior end like a lash of a whip and a thick posterior end like the handle of the whip
What does a Trichuris egg look like?
-Thick yellow/brown symmetric shell
-Prominent polar plugs at either end
-Unembryonated when laid
(looks like Stewies head)
What is the prepatenet period of Trichuris?
How are Trichuris eggs passed?
In feces every third day
Eggs are developed in the environment
Eggs MUST be ingested by the host
What are some signs of Trichuris?
Diarrhea, anemia, mucus coated stool
What type of parasite needs a minimum of 15 min fecal float?
What are some treatments and preventions for Trichuris?
Vermicides (Mebendazole, Fenbendazole)
Removal of feces from environment daily
Who does Dirofilaria immitis infect?
Canine, feline, ferret
Who is the intermediate host for Dirofilaria immitis?
Where in the body are Dirofilaria immitis found?
Right ventricle, pulmonary arteries
What type of climate is Dirofilaria immitis usually found?
Warm, temperate climates
What is the transmission route of Dirofilaria immitis?
Bite of infective mosquito
What is the common name of Dirofilaria immitis?
What are microfilariae?
Offspring of Dirofilaria immitis
What is the pre-patent period of Dirofilaria immitis?
Approximately 6 months in dogs
Explain the life cycle of Dirofilaria immitis
-Female produces microfilariae
-Released into blood stream and ingested by feeding female mosquitos
-Microfil. grow and molt in mosquito
-Enter new host when mosquito feeds
What are some tests we use to diagnose Dirofilaria immitis?
Modified Knott's test (not very common)
Elisa test (more common)
What are some signs of Dirofilaria immitis?
-Right sided heart enlargement
What are some ways we can treat Dirofilaria immitis?
what are some post-treatments?
Microfilariae test, Elisa test
What is the host for Aelurostrongylus abstrusus?
Where are Aelurostrongylus abstrusus found in the body?
Respiratory bronchioles and alveolar duct
What is the transmission route of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus?
Ingestion of larvae
What is the common name of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus?
What is the host for Filaroides osleri, F. hirthi, F. milksi?
Where are Filaroides spp. found in the body?
Trachea, lung parachyma, bronchioles
Where in the world are Filaroides spp. found?
North America, Europe, Japan