Weeks 1&2: Phonetics I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Weeks 1&2: Phonetics I Deck (25)
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1

Define: PHONETICS

The study of speech sounds

2

Name: THE SPEECH ORGANS

- Mouth
- Tongue
- Lungs
- Nose

3

Name: THE THREE STAGES OF SPEECH PRODUCTION

1. Initiation
2. Phonation
3. Articulation

4

Define: INITIATION

Air passes from the lungs, upwards and outwards through the vocal tract - typically using egressive pulmonic airflow

5

Define: PHONATION

Air is converted into vibrations and takes place in the larynx

6

Define: ARTICULATION

Air is manipulated to create a specific sound in the upper vocal tract (mouth and nose)

7

What is the vocal tract made up of?

Larynx + Mouth + Nose

8

Name: THE SEVEN ARTICULATORS (aka places of articulation)

- Teeth
- Epiglottis
- Lips
- Uvula
- Velum
- Alveolar Ridge
- Tongue

9

Define: PLACES OF ARTICULATION

A set of locations in the vocal tract where speech sounds are produced

10

Define: CONSONANTS

Sounds produced with closure (or near-closure) in the vocal tract

11

Define: VOWELS

Sounds produced with no closure in the vocal tract

12

What stricture do CONSONTANTS use?

Closed/narrow stricture

13

What stricture do VOWELS use?

Open stricture - with no closure in the vocal tract

14

Define: STRICTURE

The degree of closure in the vocal tract

15

Name: THE TWO 'SEMI-VOWELS'

'y' and 'w'

16

Define: VOICING

The vibrating of the vocal folds during phonation

17

What determines if a sound is VOICED?

When the vocal folds are vibrating

18

What determines if a sound is VOICELESS?

When the vocal folds are not vibrating

19

Name: THE FOUR TYPES OF PHONATION

- Voiceless
- Whisper
- Creak
- Voiced

20

Define: MANNER OF ARTICULATION

The way the airstream is affected as it flows from the lungs and out of the nose and mouth

21

Name: THE FOUR MANNERS OF ARTICULATION

- Plosives
- Fricatives
- Approximants
- Nasals

22

Define: PLOSIVES

A small ‘explosion’ of air released from behind the articulators, creating a short burst of sound that can’t be sustained e.g. /p/, /d/

23

Define: NASALS

There's complete closure in mouth and an open velum, forcing air through the nose. They can be maintained e.g. /ŋ/ as in anger, swing

24

Define: APPROXIMANTS

Produced by bringing one articulator close of another without actually touching or creating audible friction e.g. /r/, /w/, /j/, /l/

25

Define: FRICATIVES

Produced by bringing two articulators close together, forcing air through a narrow channel and creating audible friction e.g. /f/, /v/, /s/, /z/