Flashcards in Weeks 9 & 10: Sensation and Perception Deck (87):
What is sensation
Process where the body gathers info and transmits it to the brain
What is perception?
When the brains elects, organises and interprets sensory info
There are 3 basic principles that apply to sensation and perception. What are they?
1. There is no one-to-one correspondence between physical and psychological reality
2. They are both active processes
They are both adaptive
The translation of physical stimulation into neural signals is called…
An absolute sensory threshold is the…
Minimal amount of energy required for activation
What are the 2 processes required for detecting a stimulus?
1. Initial sensory process (observer’s sensitivity to the stimulus)
Decision process (readiness to report detecting a stimulus)
What are the 4 signal detection outcomes?
Hit, Miss, False alarm and correct rejection
If you have a YES response bias, you are
‘trigger happy’, more sensitive to signals
If you have a NO response bias, you are…
Slow to pick up signals
Which threshold law?
The 2nd of 2 stimuli must differ by a constant proportion to the first to be perceived as different.
Which threshold law?
The magnitude of a stimulus grows logarithmically as the subjective experience of intensity grows algorithmically.
Which threshold law?
Your perception grows in line with the change in actual intensity
Steven’s Power Law
The tendency of sensory systems to respond less to stimuli that continue without change is called…
The visual perception pathway that tells us WHERE things are is in the…
The visual perception pathway that tells us WHAT things are is in the…
In the ear, waves travel down the …
What is the cocktail party phenomenon?
Tracking and attending to a particular sound source
What is the phenomic restoration effect?
Hearing/inoutting sounds to make language meaningful
What do proprioceptive senses do?
Register body position and movements
The vestibular sense senses…
Gravity and movement
Kinesthesia provides info about
Position of limbs and other parts, relative to one another.
The ability to perceive info outside of our conscious awareness is called…
What are the 2 types of light receptors called at the back of the eye balls?
Rods (120 million of them)
Cones (8 million of them)
What do rods and cones do?
Absorb light energy
The rods and cones send electrical signals to...
The bipolar cells produce a graded potential in the...
The long axons of the ganglion cells bundle together to form the...
The optic nerve carries information to the...
Optic nerve impulses pass through the...
After the optic chasm, the pathways are called the...
What is the clump of neurons called that control eye movement?
The Young-helmholtz tricolour theory states that...
The eye contains 3 types of receptors
The eye is most sensitive to green and blue
This operates at a retina level
Opponent process theory of colour vision states that...
There are 3 antagonistic colour systems
blue-yellow, red-green, black-white
This operates at higher neural levels
Frequency is measured in
Amplitude refers to the loudness of a sound, meaning the...
height and depth of the sound
Complexity of sound refers to...
The timbre (multiple frequencies)
What are the 3 main components of the eardrum?
The hammer, anvil and stirrup
The semicircular canals in the ear help us to...
The cochlea helps us with...
What does the auditory nerve do?
Transmits auditory info to the brain
The location where 100's of different smell receptors reside is called the...
The world as it is subjectively experienced by an individual is referred to as...
the phenomenological world
Psychophysics is the study of the relationship between
the physical wold and our experience
The doctrine of specific nerve energies states that sensations result from following...
specific nerve pathways
The 2 major processes occuring in the eye are...
focusing and transduction
Each ganglion cell in the eye has a...
The receptive field is the region where...
a neuron responds to stimulation
Describe the cochlea
a 3 chambered tube shaped like a snal
What happens when we hear a sound?
The stirrup vibrates against the oval window.
The window vibrates and causes pressure in the cochlear fluid
This disturbs the basilar membrane (which separates the 2 chambers)
This law is consistent with sensory modality, but varies from modality to modality...
the Weber Fraction
The centre-surround areas areas of the ganglion cells exhibit...
the visual image of different and predictable colour that persists after a stimulus has been removed is called an...
The incus, stapes and malleus in the middle ear are also known as...
the anvil, the stirrup and the hammer
How often do taste receptors regenerate and why?
every 10-11 days, otherwise damage like burns could occur that permanently damage the tongue
Name some important functions of the skin
- aids social interactions
- protects from injury
- maintains body temp
What are common psychological traits of people with chronic pain?
anxious, depressed, needy, angry, blame all personal problems on their condition
the human eye can detect light between...
This part of the eye is more sensitive to light and responds to lower light intensities than other parts...
A hearing problem due to the stapes is what kind of problem...
Permanent damage to the ear can occur from...
repeated exposure to sounds over 90db (eg. concerts)
Damage to the primary gustatory systems in the brain will result in...
difficulty identifying food due to loss of taste
the perceptual principle of similarity is the tendency to...
group similar elements together
Which perception is believed to be partially learned, cross-culturally?
pereceiving 3D in 2D art
What do the receptive fields in 'motion detectors' do as the input travels to the primary visual cortex?
The increase in size
What are the 3 types of perceptual constancies?
size, shape, colour
What is the muller-lyer illusion?
a perceptual illusion in which 2 lines of the same length appear different in length
The ponzo illusion (2 lines of equal length, one above the other, that do not appear to be of equal length) depends on...
experience with linear perspective
The meaning of stimuli is often immediate and obvious, even to the untrained eye. This is the theory of...
These increase the speed and efficiency of perception...
According to Gestalt psychologists, this is not a perceptual rule of the brain...
Top down processing and bottom up processing occur...
Processing that begins with raw,, sensory data that feeds towards a perception is called...
Processing that starts with observed explanation and knowledge to organise and interpret sensations is called...
top down processing (Gestalt)
Distinguishing an object from its background sensation is called...
Biederman's recognition by components theory - incomplete figures are recognised quickly as long as...
the relationships between the geons are clear
Perceptual illusions result from...
Retinal disparity and convergence are...
The perception of movement in objects is called...
organising changing perceptions into stable concepts is called...
Some of the monocular cues to depth perception include:
linear perspective (parallel lines appearing to converge in the distance)
interposition (obstructed objects appearing more distant)
This is NOT a monocular depth cue...
convergence (of the eyes closer together when things are up close)
the moon illusion is an example of...
incorrect inferences about depth cues
When you look out the window of a moving car, trees seem to pass quickly, compared to if you looked out the front of the car. This is called...
Perceptual constancy is...
The perception of objects as stable despite different sensory cues being received (eg. change in hair colour or apperance = the same person)
Perceptual constancy is...
knowing an object is the same despite viewing it from different angles/sides
Knowing an open door is still a rectangle is an example of...