Weeks 9 & 10: Sensation and Perception Flashcards Preview

CogBog Sem 1 End of Semester Exam > Weeks 9 & 10: Sensation and Perception > Flashcards

Flashcards in Weeks 9 & 10: Sensation and Perception Deck (87):
1

What is sensation

Process where the body gathers info and transmits it to the brain

2

What is perception?

When the brains elects, organises and interprets sensory info

3

There are 3 basic principles that apply to sensation and perception. What are they?

1. There is no one-to-one correspondence between physical and psychological reality
2. They are both active processes
They are both adaptive

4

The translation of physical stimulation into neural signals is called…

Transduction

5

An absolute sensory threshold is the…

Minimal amount of energy required for activation

6

What are the 2 processes required for detecting a stimulus?

1. Initial sensory process (observer’s sensitivity to the stimulus)
Decision process (readiness to report detecting a stimulus)

7

What are the 4 signal detection outcomes?

Hit, Miss, False alarm and correct rejection

8

If you have a YES response bias, you are

‘trigger happy’, more sensitive to signals

9

If you have a NO response bias, you are…

Slow to pick up signals

10

Which threshold law?
The 2nd of 2 stimuli must differ by a constant proportion to the first to be perceived as different.

Weber’s Law

11

Which threshold law?
The magnitude of a stimulus grows logarithmically as the subjective experience of intensity grows algorithmically.

Fechner’s Law

12

Which threshold law?
Your perception grows in line with the change in actual intensity

Steven’s Power Law

13

The tendency of sensory systems to respond less to stimuli that continue without change is called…

Sensory adaptation

14

The visual perception pathway that tells us WHERE things are is in the…

Parietal lobe

15

The visual perception pathway that tells us WHAT things are is in the…

Temporal lobe

16

In the ear, waves travel down the …

Basilar membrane

17

What is the cocktail party phenomenon?

Tracking and attending to a particular sound source

18

What is the phenomic restoration effect?

Hearing/inoutting sounds to make language meaningful

19

What do proprioceptive senses do?

Register body position and movements

20

The vestibular sense senses…

Gravity and movement

21

Kinesthesia provides info about

Position of limbs and other parts, relative to one another.

22

The ability to perceive info outside of our conscious awareness is called…

Subliminal perception

23

What are the 2 types of light receptors called at the back of the eye balls?

Rods (120 million of them)
Cones (8 million of them)

24

What do rods and cones do?

Absorb light energy

25

The rods and cones send electrical signals to...

bipolar cells

26

The bipolar cells produce a graded potential in the...

ganglion cells

27

The long axons of the ganglion cells bundle together to form the...

optic nerve

28

The optic nerve carries information to the...

brain

29

Optic nerve impulses pass through the...

optic chasm

30

After the optic chasm, the pathways are called the...

optic tract

31

What is the clump of neurons called that control eye movement?

Superior colliculus

32

The Young-helmholtz tricolour theory states that...

The eye contains 3 types of receptors
The eye is most sensitive to green and blue
This operates at a retina level

33

Opponent process theory of colour vision states that...

There are 3 antagonistic colour systems
blue-yellow, red-green, black-white
This operates at higher neural levels

34

Frequency is measured in

Hertz

35

Amplitude refers to the loudness of a sound, meaning the...

height and depth of the sound

36

Complexity of sound refers to...

The timbre (multiple frequencies)

37

What are the 3 main components of the eardrum?

The hammer, anvil and stirrup

38

The semicircular canals in the ear help us to...

balance

39

The cochlea helps us with...

hearing

40

What does the auditory nerve do?

Transmits auditory info to the brain

41

The location where 100's of different smell receptors reside is called the...

olfactory epithelum

42

The world as it is subjectively experienced by an individual is referred to as...

the phenomenological world

43

Psychophysics is the study of the relationship between

the physical wold and our experience

44

The doctrine of specific nerve energies states that sensations result from following...

specific nerve pathways

45

The 2 major processes occuring in the eye are...

focusing and transduction

46

Each ganglion cell in the eye has a...

receptive field

47

The receptive field is the region where...

a neuron responds to stimulation

48

Describe the cochlea

a 3 chambered tube shaped like a snal

49

What happens when we hear a sound?

The stirrup vibrates against the oval window.
The window vibrates and causes pressure in the cochlear fluid
This disturbs the basilar membrane (which separates the 2 chambers)

50

This law is consistent with sensory modality, but varies from modality to modality...

the Weber Fraction

51

The centre-surround areas areas of the ganglion cells exhibit...

lateral inhibition

52

the visual image of different and predictable colour that persists after a stimulus has been removed is called an...

after image

53

The incus, stapes and malleus in the middle ear are also known as...

the anvil, the stirrup and the hammer

54

How often do taste receptors regenerate and why?

every 10-11 days, otherwise damage like burns could occur that permanently damage the tongue

55

Name some important functions of the skin

- aids social interactions
- protects from injury
- maintains body temp

56

What are common psychological traits of people with chronic pain?

anxious, depressed, needy, angry, blame all personal problems on their condition

57

the human eye can detect light between...

400-700nm

58

This part of the eye is more sensitive to light and responds to lower light intensities than other parts...

rods

59

A hearing problem due to the stapes is what kind of problem...

conduction

60

Permanent damage to the ear can occur from...

repeated exposure to sounds over 90db (eg. concerts)

61

Damage to the primary gustatory systems in the brain will result in...

difficulty identifying food due to loss of taste

62

the perceptual principle of similarity is the tendency to...

group similar elements together

63

Which perception is believed to be partially learned, cross-culturally?

pereceiving 3D in 2D art

64

What do the receptive fields in 'motion detectors' do as the input travels to the primary visual cortex?

The increase in size

65

What are the 3 types of perceptual constancies?

size, shape, colour

66

What is the muller-lyer illusion?

a perceptual illusion in which 2 lines of the same length appear different in length

67

The ponzo illusion (2 lines of equal length, one above the other, that do not appear to be of equal length) depends on...

experience with linear perspective

68

The meaning of stimuli is often immediate and obvious, even to the untrained eye. This is the theory of...

direct perception

69

These increase the speed and efficiency of perception...

schemas

70

According to Gestalt psychologists, this is not a perceptual rule of the brain...

shading

71

Top down processing and bottom up processing occur...

simultanously

72

Processing that begins with raw,, sensory data that feeds towards a perception is called...

bottom-up processing

73

Processing that starts with observed explanation and knowledge to organise and interpret sensations is called...

top down processing (Gestalt)

74

Distinguishing an object from its background sensation is called...

figure-ground

75

Biederman's recognition by components theory - incomplete figures are recognised quickly as long as...

the relationships between the geons are clear

76

Perceptual illusions result from...

perceptual misinterpretation

77

Retinal disparity and convergence are...

binocular cues

78

The perception of movement in objects is called...

motion perception

79

organising changing perceptions into stable concepts is called...

perceptual constancy

80

Some of the monocular cues to depth perception include:

linear perspective (parallel lines appearing to converge in the distance)
shading
interposition (obstructed objects appearing more distant)

81

This is NOT a monocular depth cue...

convergence (of the eyes closer together when things are up close)

82

the moon illusion is an example of...

incorrect inferences about depth cues

83

When you look out the window of a moving car, trees seem to pass quickly, compared to if you looked out the front of the car. This is called...

motion parallax

84

Perceptual constancy is...

The perception of objects as stable despite different sensory cues being received (eg. change in hair colour or apperance = the same person)

85

Perceptual constancy is...

knowing an object is the same despite viewing it from different angles/sides

86

Knowing an open door is still a rectangle is an example of...

shape constancy

87

What is the difference between bottom-up and top down processing?

Bottom up starts with raw sensory data that feeds up to the brain.
Top-down starts with our expectatasians and knowledge