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Flashcards in Western-Orthopedic Deck (21):


An injury to a muscle or tendinous attachment.



Ligaments are sprained. Traumatic injury to ligaments or around joint.



Vitamin D deficiency usually seen in babies & kids.

Sx: bowlegs, knock-knees, enlarged skull, muscle pain, chest deformities, enlargement of LV & SP.



Striated: voluntary or skeletal
Smooth: moves internal organs
Cardiac: look striated but are likes smooth muscles in action.


Carpel Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)

Compression of the median nerve, which innervates the palm & radial side of the hand. Phalen's Test, Tinel Sign.


Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS)

Compression of nerves or blood vessels because of an inadequate passageway through the thoracic outlet.

Sx: neck, shoulder & arm pain, numbness or impaired circulation to the extremities, which extends to the fingers & hands causing weakness.



Nerve root pain that's shooting & radiates down one or both legs, usually to below the knees. Often associated w/ numbness, tingling & possibly local weakness.


Orthopedic Tests-Adson's Test

Positive sign indicates TOS at scalene triangle. PT is examined standing. Examiner palpates the radial pulse w/ moving the upper extremity in abduction, extension & external rotation.


Orthopedic Tests-Brudzinski Sign

An indication usually present in meningitis. Passive flexion of the head on the chest induces flexion of the lower limbs or passive flexion of one lower limb causes flexion of the other limb.


Orthopedic Tests-Kernig Test

Test is positive if there is pain on attempting to extend the leg at the knee w/ the thigh flexed at the hip. This indicates meningitis, which causes severe stiffness of the hamstrings.


Orthopedic Tests-Yergason Test

Tests for bicep tendon injury. Elbow is flexed to 90 degrees & PT is asked to resist while externally rotating the arm.


Orthopedic Tests-Finkelstein Test

Positive test indicates stenosing tenosynovitis (DeQuervain's Disease). PT makes a fist w/ thumb inside the fingers. Doctor holds the forearm & turns the wrist in the direction of the ulnar side.


Orthopedic Tests-Phalen's Test

Positive test indicates CTS. Hold PT's wrist in acute flexion 60 seconds or ask PT to press the back of both hands together to form right angles. Positive sign if tingling or numbness develop over thumb, index & part of the ring finger.


Orthopedic Tests-Tinel's Sign

Positive test indicates CTS. Tap median nerve along the course of the wrist. Positive sign if it causes tingling in the fingers.


Orthopedic Tests-Straight Leg Test

Test for low back pain, osteoarthritis & sciatica. Raise one leg-knee absolutely straight until pain is experienced in the thigh, buttock or calf.


Orthopedic Tests-Braggard's Test

The test is positive if it produces pain in the spine. Positive test indicates nerve root lesion, disk herniation or sciatica.


Orthopedic Tests-Apley Compression Test

Pain can indicate an injury of either meniscus.


Orthopedic Tests-Apley Distraction Test

Helps to distinguish to between meniscal & ligamentous problems of the knee joint.


Orthopedic Tests-McMurray Test

Used to determine a meniscal tear.


Orthopedic Tests-Anterior Drawer Test

Detects rupture of the anterior cruciate ligaments in the knee. If positive, send for MRI.


Orthopedic Tests-Posterior Drawer Test

Detects rupture of posterior cruciate ligaments in the knee. If positive, send for MRI.

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