What are the most salient features of hunter gatherer societies? Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in What are the most salient features of hunter gatherer societies? Deck (32):
1

name two societies which would not be considered to be patriarchal?

Philipino Agta and Paraguayan Hiwi

2

what are four main points for this essay?

1) strong kinship ties
2) Diet
3) Spiritualism and worldview
4) Sexual division of labour

3

Define a hunter gatherer society

A hunter-getherer society is one which subsists from the land without reliance on farming, instead relying on farming and fishing in the willd

4

What is interesting about the ordering of hunter gatherer?

That the ordering of the word confirms a patriarchal hegemony that does not accurately reflect the realities of the calorific intake of people

5

What do the Mardu aborigines get called?

Fire stick farmers

6

What percentage of Yanamomi diet comes form farmed food?

80-90%

7

What is the ethnography for the aborigines?

Tonkinson 2001

8

Who talks about the Yanomami?

Napoleon Chagnon

9

Who talks about the Dani?

Heider 1997

10

Who are the southern African people?

!Kung San

11

Why is kinship such an important unit for hunter gatherers?

because of low population densities and as a unit of social grouping

12

What society exhibits a 4 section moiety?

Mardu Aborgine

13

What society has 2 exogamous moieties?

Dani

14

What society uses cross-cousin marriage?

Yanomami

15

How do the Mardu aborigines organise their family?

Into bands, groups comprising several families

16

What does Heider argue?

The complexity of social systems is usually markedly different to the simplicity of the food system, this view is a nice segue between conceptions of their food and conceptions of their world view

17

what is the german for world view?

Weltenshauung

18

What is a particularly interesting analytical point regarding sustainability?

Such societies are not threatened because of their own existence. This has been highly sustainable, with the Ju/'hosani existing as they have done thus far for over 150 000 years. Instead, the threat is challenges from the global north.

19

How is much of their understanding framed?

Much of their sustainability is framed in their world view. Aborigines have an understanding of the world which stresses a continuation into the environment, and even the farming Dani have an ecological holism which includes the pig shit being used for fertiliser.

20

What could explain the sexual division of labour found?

The inevitable constraints the pregnancy and lactation put on the ability to hunt.

21

What did Geertz say about religion?

It is a model both for and of reality

22

What does Durkheim say about religion?

Religion is something which justifies and reproduces a certain conception of the world/

23

How does Evans-Pritchard's withccart and magic in the Azande relate to religion?

Not only does their conception of religion justify their own social order, but also, as Evans Pritchard argued, makes complete rational sense within their own conception of the world.

24

What is the name of the aborigine dream time?

Alcheringa

25

What are the alcheringa beings?

Half human, half animal, extending into the landscape

26

How can you desire the alcheringa rules?

A circular set of rules which encourages care

27

What is animism (Mardu)?

attribution of a living soul to animals and inanimate objects such as places

28

What is totemism (Mardu)?

Durkheim argues that religion has its origins in totemism, the idea that Totems are collective symbols which represent god and society.

29

What is the Yanomami name (animism) for their spirit animal?

Noresbi

30

Shams bridge the gap between what two things?

the profane and the sacred

31

Who came up with the profane-sacred dichotomy?

durkheim, along with his idea that religion is something which justifies a particular social order, condensing moral values and rituals to reproduce this conception of the world

32

What is the analytical point that you can make which unifies the diverse societies?

threat