Thirst that is produced by a loss of overall fluid volume from the body.
Odorant biochemical released by one animal that acts as a chemosignal and can affect the physiology or behavior of another animal.
Gender-identity disorder involving the strong belief of having been born the wrong sex.
Disorder in which an animal overeats, leading to significant weight gain.
Failure to eat; may be due to an unwillingness to eat or to motor difficulties, especially with swallowing.
Behavior that seems purposeful and goal-directed.
Behavioral syndrome, characterized especially by hypersexuality, that results from bilateral injury to the temporal lobe.
Thirst that results from an increased concentration of dissolved chemicals, or solutes, in body fluids.
Cognitive interpretation of subjective feelings.
Behavior motivated to meet the survival needs of the animal.
Exaggerated concern with being overweight that leads to inadequate food intake and often excessive exercising; can lead to severe weight loss and even starvation.
learned taste aversion
Acquired association between a specific taste or odor and illness; leads to an aversion to foods that have the taste or odor.
Endocrine gland attached to the bottom of the hypothalamus; its secretions control the activities of many other endocrine glands; known to be associated with biological rhythms.
medial forebrain bundle (MFB)
Tract that connects structures in the brainstem with various parts of the limbic system; forms the activating projections that run from the brainstem to the basal ganglia and frontal cortex.
Distinctive, three-layered subcortical structure of the limbic system lying in the medial region of the temporal lobe; plays a role in species-specific behaviors, memory, and spatial navigation and is vulnerable to the effects of stress; named for the Greek word for seahorse.
innate releasing mechanism (IRM)
Hypothetical mechanism that detects specific sensory stimuli and directs an organism to take a particular action.
Almond-shaped collection of nuclei located within the limbic system; plays a role in emotional and species-typical behaviors.
Excessive accumulation of body fat.
Fear of a clearly defined object or situation.
Process that maintains critical body functions within a narrow, fixed range.
A person's feeling of being either male or female.
Any neurosurgical technique intended to alter behavior.
Male hormone related to level of sexual interest.
Differential development of brain areas in the two sexes.
In operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
Predisposition to respond to certain stimuli differently from other stimuli.
A person's sexual attraction to the opposite sex or to the same sex or to both sexes.
Recurrent attacks of intense terror that come on without warning and without any apparent relation to external circumstances.
Behavior unnecessay to the basic survival needs of the animal.
prefrontal cortex (PFC)
The large frontal-lobe area anterior to the motor and premotor cortex; plays a key role in controlling executive functions such as planning.
orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)
Prefrontal cortex located behind the eye sockets (the orbits) that receives projections from the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus; plays a central role in a variety of emotional and social behaviors as well as in eating; also called orbital frontal cortex.
Peptides that are released by the hypothalamus and act to increase or decrease the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary.
Discipline that seeks to apply principles of natural selection to understand the causes of human behavior.
Experimental setup in which a subject is allowed only restricted sensory input; subjects generally have a low tolerance for deprivation and may even display hallucinations.
generalized anxiety disorder
Persistently high levels of anxiety often accompanied by maladaptive behaviors to reduce anxiety; the disorder is thought to be caused by chronic stress.
somatic marker hypothesis
Posits that 'marker' signals arising from emotions and feelings act to guide behavior and decision making, usually in an unconscious process.