What causes emotional and motivated behavior? Flashcards Preview

Physiological Psychology > What causes emotional and motivated behavior? > Flashcards

Flashcards in What causes emotional and motivated behavior? Deck (36):
1

hypovolumic thirst

Thirst that is produced by a loss of overall fluid volume from the body.

2

pheromone

Odorant biochemical released by one animal that acts as a chemosignal and can affect the physiology or behavior of another animal.

2

transsexuality

Gender-identity disorder involving the strong belief of having been born the wrong sex.

3

hyperphagia

Disorder in which an animal overeats, leading to significant weight gain.

4

aphagia

Failure to eat; may be due to an unwillingness to eat or to motor difficulties, especially with swallowing.

4

motivation

Behavior that seems purposeful and goal-directed.

5

Klüver-Bucy syndrome

Behavioral syndrome, characterized especially by hypersexuality, that results from bilateral injury to the temporal lobe.

6

osmotic thirst

Thirst that results from an increased concentration of dissolved chemicals, or solutes, in body fluids.

9

emotion

Cognitive interpretation of subjective feelings.

10

regulatory behavior

Behavior motivated to meet the survival needs of the animal.

11

anorexia nervosa

Exaggerated concern with being overweight that leads to inadequate food intake and often excessive exercising; can lead to severe weight loss and even starvation.

12

learned taste aversion

Acquired association between a specific taste or odor and illness; leads to an aversion to foods that have the taste or odor.

12

pituitary gland

Endocrine gland attached to the bottom of the hypothalamus; its secretions control the activities of many other endocrine glands; known to be associated with biological rhythms.

13

medial forebrain bundle (MFB)

Tract that connects structures in the brainstem with various parts of the limbic system; forms the activating projections that run from the brainstem to the basal ganglia and frontal cortex.

14

hippocampus

Distinctive, three-layered subcortical structure of the limbic system lying in the medial region of the temporal lobe; plays a role in species-specific behaviors, memory, and spatial navigation and is vulnerable to the effects of stress; named for the Greek word for seahorse.

15

innate releasing mechanism (IRM)

Hypothetical mechanism that detects specific sensory stimuli and directs an organism to take a particular action.

16

amygdala

Almond-shaped collection of nuclei located within the limbic system; plays a role in emotional and species-typical behaviors.

17

obesity

Excessive accumulation of body fat.

18

phobia

Fear of a clearly defined object or situation.

19

homeostatic mechanism

Process that maintains critical body functions within a narrow, fixed range.

20

gender identity

A person's feeling of being either male or female.

21

psychosurgery

Any neurosurgical technique intended to alter behavior.

22

androgen

Male hormone related to level of sexual interest.

23

sexual dimorphism

Differential development of brain areas in the two sexes.

24

reinforcer

In operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.

25

preparedness

Predisposition to respond to certain stimuli differently from other stimuli.

26

sexual orientation

A person's sexual attraction to the opposite sex or to the same sex or to both sexes.

28

panic disorder

Recurrent attacks of intense terror that come on without warning and without any apparent relation to external circumstances.

29

nonregulatory behavior

Behavior unnecessay to the basic survival needs of the animal.

30

prefrontal cortex (PFC)

The large frontal-lobe area anterior to the motor and premotor cortex; plays a key role in controlling executive functions such as planning.

31

orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)

Prefrontal cortex located behind the eye sockets (the orbits) that receives projections from the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus; plays a central role in a variety of emotional and social behaviors as well as in eating; also called orbital frontal cortex.

32

releasing hormones

Peptides that are released by the hypothalamus and act to increase or decrease the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary.

33

evolutionary psychology

Discipline that seeks to apply principles of natural selection to understand the causes of human behavior.

34

sensory deprivation

Experimental setup in which a subject is allowed only restricted sensory input; subjects generally have a low tolerance for deprivation and may even display hallucinations.

35

generalized anxiety disorder

Persistently high levels of anxiety often accompanied by maladaptive behaviors to reduce anxiety; the disorder is thought to be caused by chronic stress.

36

somatic marker hypothesis

Posits that 'marker' signals arising from emotions and feelings act to guide behavior and decision making, usually in an unconscious process.