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Flashcards in White Cells and Neoplasia Deck (17):
1

What are 2 types of acute Leukaemias?

Failure of maturation leading to accumulation in bone marrow and spilling over in circulation.
1) Myeloid (most common in children)
2) Lymphoblastic (most common in adults)

2

What are some types of acute Leukaemias?

Failure of maturation leading to accumulation in bone marrow and spilling over in circulation.
1) Myeloid (most common in children)
2) Lymphoblastic (most common in adults)

3

What happens in chronic myeloid leukaemia?

Replacement of normal bone marrow cells with abnormal chromosome (90% have Philadelphia Chromosome)

4

What happens in chronic myeloid leukaemia?

Replacement of normal bone marrow cells with abnormal chromosome (90% have Philadelphia Chromosome).
The proliferation of cells is excessive.

5

What happens in Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia?

Abnormal lymphocytes in lymphoid tissue. Leads to enlarged lymph nodes and infections.

6

What are lymphomas?

The lymphoid tissue is replaced with abnormal cells. Leads to enlarged lymph nodes, fever and pruritus. May invade other organs, eg. lungs.

7

What is the difference between Hodgkin's and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?

Hodgkin's is high grade, whereas the other is low.

8

What are cytotoxic agents?

Drugs that kill rapidly dividing cells.

9

What are Antimetabolites?

Interfere with metabolic pathways in DNA synthesis.

10

What are the phases in chemotherapy?

Induction and maintenance (kill of 99.999% and then recovery.) Repeat. After that: Total body irradiation and Bone Marrow Transplant.

11

What are Antimetabolites and name 2 examples.

Interfere with metabolic pathways in DNA synthesis.
Methotrexate: folate antagonist.
Mercaptopurine: false substrate incorporated into purine - kills cells

12

What are alkylating agents and name 2 examples.

They cross-link DNA and thus impair RNA formation and Replication.
Cyclophosphamide and Busulphan.

13

Name 2 examples of cytotoxic antibodies and what they do.

Actinomycin D: intercalates with DNA and prevents replication.
Bleomycin: fragments DNA

14

What are Vinca alkaloids?

They damage spindle fibres for mitosis.

15

Why are glucocorticoids used in chemotherapy?

To inhibit lymphocyte production.

16

What can be given to patients to reduce the side effects of chemotherapy?

Colony-Stimulating factors to overcom reduced WBCs. Prevent infections with antibiotics and antifungals.
Folinic acid for Methotrexate causing megaloblastic anaemia.

17

What are the clinical symptoms of Multiple Myeloma?

Cancerous proliferation of plasma cells in bone marrow. They produce antibodies - monoclonal proteins appear in blood and urine.
Bone marrow fails - anaemia and thrombocytopenia.