Winemaking Flashcards Preview

WSET L3 GJR 2018 > Winemaking > Flashcards

Flashcards in Winemaking Deck (102):
1

In white wine making why is skin contact limited?

To reduce the risk of oxidisation

2

What process do some winemakers choose to limit the contact between skin and juice and to, arguably, make a wine with more purity and delicacy?

They load the press with whole bunches of uncrushed grapes.The process is gentle, reduces risk of oxidisation and can, potentially, lead to wines with more purity & delicacy.

3

List, in order, the minimum steps that must happen to make White Wine

- Grapes pressed and skins extracted (or pressed as whole bunches)

- Juice clarification

- Alcoholic fermentation

- Rack off Gross Lees

- Newly made wine

- Packaging and offered for sale

4

What can happen if grape juice isn't clarified before fermentation?

It can result in creation of unpleasant aromas and fermentation could stop prematurely.

5

What is the fermentation temperature range for white wine?

12c~22c

6

What are the 4 methods to clarify grape juice or finished wine?

Settling

Centrifugation

Fining

Filtration

7

What happens if wine is fermented at too low a temperature?

Creation of pear drop aromas and can fail to capture varietal fruit characters

8

What happens if wine is fermented at too high a temperature?

Can encourage more complex non fruit aromas to develop BUT risks losing losing varietal fruit aromas.

9

Name 3 choices for a white wine maker after fermentation.

1. Mature in oak or inert vessels (with or without Oak staves or chips).

2. Omit or keep the fine lees to add texture and flavour to the wine.

3. Allow or block MLF

10

What is MLF and what does it achieve

MLF = Malolactic fermentation

Takes place once alcoholic fermentation has finished

Converts tart Malic acid (also found in apples) into softer Lactic acids (also found in milk).

Result being softens and reduces acidity and creates buttery flavours and CO2

11

How can a winemaker discourage MLF?

Storage at cooler temperature, use of SO2, or by filtering out bacteria.

12

How can a winemaker encourage MLF?

Raising the temperature of the wine and by not adding SO2.

13

Why might a winemaker blend the wine?

Improve consistency, enhance the balance of the wine and create a certain style.

14

What is RCGM and what is it used for?

RCGM = Rectified Concentrated Grape Must

= Unfermented grape juice

Used to increase sweetness in the finished wine

15

In Sweet winemaking name 6 methods that result in sweeter wine

i. Stopping fermentation by Fortification, by adding high dose of SO2 or chilling the fermenting wine (must then be filtered).

ii. Adding a sweetening component such as Süssreserve or RCGM

iii. Using grapes affected by Noble Rot

iv. Drying grapes on the vine (become like raisins) 'Passerilage'

v. Drying grapes after picking 'Passito' (in Italy) delivers 'Recioto' wine

vi. Freezing on the vine 'Eiswein' or 'Ice Wine'.

16

What does 'Cold Maceration' or 'Cold Soaking' mean and what does it achieve?

After crushing grapes macerate at low temperature before fermentation starts.

The purpose of this maceration is to extract colour and flavour compounds.

 

17

At what temperature range is red wine usually fermented?

20~32c

Above 35c may kill the yeast

18

What is 'Cap Management' and what does it achieve?

The 'Cap' is the mass of pulp and skins on the surface of the wine, if left to float little colour, flavour or tannin will be extracted.

'Cap Management' is one of the processes to to keep the pulp and skins in contact with the fermenting juice.

19

List 4 'Cap Management' techniques and briefly outline what they are.

Punching Down - Punching the Cap down by hand with paddles on sticks, more latterly done by mechanical paddles.

Pumping Over - Fermenting juice drawn from bottom of vat and pumped up on to the top to wet the Cap.

Rack and Return - Fermenting juice drained into another vessel then pumped back over the Cap.

Rotary Fermenters - Fermentation takes place in rotating horizontal tanks keeping juice in constant contact with skins.

20

What is 'Post-fermentation Extraction'?

Maceration after fermentation encourages further extraction of tannin which may or may not be desirable. Some winemakers believe it results in smoother tannin structure.

21

What is 'Press Wine' and what is it used for and what are 'press fractions'?

When maceration has finished, the 'free run' wine is drawn off the skins then the remaining mass is pressed creating 'press wine'.

Early pressings are much the same as the free run wine but with more pressure the 'free run' gets progressively darker - press fractions.

Later press fractions may be used to adjust colour and tannin in the final blend.

22

What is the purpose of 'Whole Bunch Fermentation'?

The use of whole bunches of uncrushed grapes in the fermentation varying from a small % to the entire vat.
The objective being to create an oxygen free environment for the uncrushed fruit.
The berries create some alcohol in their cells without yeast referred to as 'Intracellular Fermentation'.
A range of distinctive fruity aromas is created in the berry which gives wines, made this way, unique qualities.

23

Name and briefly summarise 3 methods of 'Whole Bunch Fermentation'.

Carbonic Maceration - Placing whole uncrushed bunches into vats that are filled with CO2 to remove oxygen. Intracellular Fermentation starts and at 2% ABV the skins split releasing juice. Then usually pressed and yeast then complete fermentation. Method extracts colour but little tannin, wines are soft and fruity with notes of Kirsch, bubblegum and cinnamon like spice.

Semi Carbonic - Similar to Carbonic but vats not filled with CO2. Vats filled with whole bunches, top ones crunch bottom releasing juice. Ambient yeast ferments juice which creates CO2, intact berries undergo Carbonic Maceration. Can result better grape aromas.

Whole Bunches with crushed fruit - Whole bunches mixed with crushed grapes, no CO2 but bunches blanket crushed grapes keeping out oxygen so intracellular fermentation takes place.Technique thought to give wine silkier texture and brighter fresher fruit character.

24

What are the 4 most common black grape varieties for high-volume wine making and why are they most suitable?

Cab Sav, Merlot, Syrah/Shiraz & Grenache/Garnacha

Because the regions responsible for high-volume wines tend to be warm, sunny and dry and due to the concentration of colours, tannins and flavours, in their skins, they can deliver fruity wines with adequate colour even at high yields.

25

Generally, at what temperature will high-volume wines be fermented at and why?

22~25c with commercial yeast.
The lower temperature will help maximise fresh fruit flavour.

26

For premium wines what is the usual fermentation temp range for Cab Sav and why?

Generally 26~30c being warm enough for sufficient extraction yet cool enough to promote fresh fruit flavours.

27

What is a 'Natural Wine'?

A wine that is made with as minimal intervention as possible

28

Oxygen during wine making is?

Always positive.

Always negative.

Sometimes positive and sometimes negative.

Has no impact on the final wine.

Sometimes positive and sometimes negative

29

Which one of these is wrong about using Sulphur dioxide in wine making?

SO2 Levels are limited because it can be toxic at very high levels.

It is an antioxidant

It is used to adjust the acidity of wine.

It’s an antiseptic

It is used to adjust the acidity of wine.

30

Which is not often part of anaerobic wine making?

Maturing wines in old oak barrels.
Use of antioxidants on the grapes during picking.
Picking at night when the temperatures are low.
Filling airtight equipment with Carbon Dioxide or Nitrogen.

Maturing wines in old oak barrels.

31

Protective wine making is most likely to result in wines that are:

Oaky.
Complex.
Fruity in Style.
Age worthy.

Fruity in Style.

32

What is the best method of storing anaerobic made wines?

In the stomach of your tutor.

In an inert stainless steel tank or epoxy resin lined cement tank.

In an oak barrel

In a bottle with a plastic cork.

In an inert stainless steel tank or epoxy resin lined cement tank.

33

Which is an incorrect statement?

 The bigger the barrel the slower oxidation occurs.
 All other things being equal, the smaller the barrel the quicker the oak flavour is imparted.
 A 225 Litre barrel is small.
 Large barrels oxidise faster because of their greater surface area.

Large barrels oxidise faster because of their greater surface area.

34

Which wine is not made by leaving a gap at the top of a barrel?

 Rutherglen Muscat.
 Olorosso Sherry.
 Champagne.
 Tawny Port.

 Champagne.

35

Which tertiary flavours are a result of excess oxidation during maturation?

 raspberry, toffee, nuts
 caramel, toffee, nuts
 caramel, coffee, tar
 raspberry, toffee, tar

 caramel, toffee, nuts

36

Which one of these is not a sign that a wine has become exposed to too much oxygen?

 White wines get darker.
 Red wines get lighter.
 Wines lose their fresh fruit flavour.
 Bacteria will cause the wine to lose acidity, develop buttery flavours and become fizzy.

Bacteria will cause the wine to lose acidity, develop buttery flavours and become fizzy.

37

Which statement is most correct about inert barrels

 Inert barrels do not pass oak flavours to the wine but the wine does typically oxidise.
 Inert barrels do pass oak flavours to the wine and the wine does oxidise.
 Inert barrels do pass oak flavours to the wine and the wine does not typically oxidise.
 Inert barrels do not pass oak flavours to the wine and the wine does not typically oxidise.

 Inert barrels do pass oak flavours to the wine and the wine does not typically oxidise.

38

Which material will not impart an oak character to the wine

 Staves.
 Oak chips.
 Oak barrels.
 Epoxy resin lined tanks.

 Epoxy resin lined tanks.

39

Which one of these is not an inert vessel?

 Epoxy lined concrete tank.
 Stainless steel .
 A Glass bottle with a screw cap.
 Oak barrel.

 Oak barrel.

40

What is the correct order for Grape Processing.

 Sorting, Destemming & Crushing, Pressing, Adjustments.
 Sorting, Pressing, Destemming & Crushing, Adjustments.
 Adjustments, Sorting, Destemming & Crushing, Pressing. 
 Pressing, Destemming & Crushing, Adjustments, Sorting. 

Sorting, Destemming & Crushing, Pressing, Adjustments.

41

Which one of these is not required if the grapes are mechanically harvested?

 Adjustments. 
 Sorting.
 Pressing. 
 Destemming & Crushing. 

 Destemming & Crushing.

42

With regard to pressing wine, what does fractions mean?

 Fractions is the ratio of juice to skin.
 It is the percentage of juice to the total weight of the grapes.
 It is different pressing of the same grapes at different pressures to give a mix of blending components.
 It is the ratio of grapes the winery dog eats, in small wineries this can be significant.

It is different pressing of the same grapes at different pressures to give a mix of blending components.

43

Which statement about pressing pressure is incorrect.

 A high pressing pressure will release more juice
 A high pressing pressure is likely to result in bitter oils in the wine from torn seeds
 A single tank of high pressure pressing wine is likely to be low quality
 A wine made from high pressing pressure is likely to result in bitter wines.

A wine made from high pressing pressure is likely to result in bitter wines.

44

Which statement about acidification is false.

 Acidification is common in Chablis
 Acidification is usually done by the addition of tartaric acid.
 Acidification is carried out by the addition of an alkali
 Acidification is common in Europe warmer regions.

Acidification is common in Chablis

45

The main organism used to carry out alcoholic fermentation is

 Brettanomyces. 
 Lactic acid bacteria.
 Saccharomyces cerevisiae
 Sponge Bob square pants.

 Saccharomyces cerevisiae

46

Which of these are reason that Alcoholic fermentation may stop? 
1) The sugar is consumed
2) The temperature is above 35℃
3) The yeast runs out of Nutrients
4) The sugar and alcohol level is too high.

 1, 2, 3, 4
 1 only
 1, 2, 4
 1, 2, 3

 1, 2, 3, 4

47

Which is not a method for the wine maker to artificially stop the fermentation?

 Addition of tartaric acid
 Chill the wine and filter.
 Addition of SO2
 Addition of Spirit to raise the alcohol level .

Addition of tartaric acid

48

Which one of these statements about yeast is False?

 Commercial yeast strains give a consistency of flavour.
 Ambient Yeast strains (wild fermentation) results in wines that may be more complex.
 Ambient / Wild yeast strains are more reliable at higher temperatures.
 Yeast will not ferment correctly if the temperature is too high or two low.

Ambient / Wild yeast strains are more reliable at higher temperatures.

49

Which one of these statements is True?

 Fermenting at higher temperatures, results in the loss of volatile aromas, particularly floral aromas.
 Fermenting at higher temperatures, results in the loss of more volatile aromas, particularly floral aromas.
 Red wines are less likely to have floral aromas due to their higher fermentation temperature.
 Lower temperatures encourage the development for fruity character.

Fermenting at higher temperatures, results in the loss of more volatile aromas, particularly floral aromas.

50

MLF stands for?

 More Lemon Flavours.
 Mumma Likes Fruity wine.
 Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus.
 Malo Lactic Fermentation.

 Malo Lactic Fermentation.

51

What does MLF do to wine?

 Adds lemon flavours to the wine, and makes the tartaric acid sharper.
 Creates a fruiter style of wine
 Softens acidity and can add a buttery flavour to the wine.
 Nothing. But it changes connections in the brain, to make the wine taste better.

Softens acidity and can add a buttery flavour to the wine.

52

Which statement about Lees Contact is false?

 Is the sediment of the dead yeast cells
 Can add richness to wine after extended ageing.
 Gross lees come out of the wine first, the fine lees settles afterwards and are removed during maturation process. 
 Lees Contact is being attacked at the pub by Lee after he has consumed too much wine. 

Lees Contact is being attacked at the pub by Lee after he has consumed too much wine. 

53

Which statements about blending are true?
1) Blending of grape varieties is common
2) Blending of vintages is allowed in some regions. 
3) Blending can occur at any stage of the winemaking process
4) Blending of different pressing fractions can help balance.

 1 only
 1 & 2
 1, 2 & 4
 1, 2, 3, 4

 1, 2, 3, 4

54

Which is not an example of Clarification?

 Sedimentation
 Finning
 Millerandage 
 Filtration

 Millerandage

55

Clear or purple/pink crystals in a bottle of wine imply that the wine?

 Has been aged in oak barrels
 Has not been chilled to stabilise the wine.
 Excess sugar from chaptalisation has not dissolved in the wine.
 You have one the diamond in the wine competition, you can now retire on your winnings.

Has not been chilled to stabilise the wine.

56

Sterile filtering is
1) Not necessary for fortified wines. 
2) A surface filter with pore size small enough to remove yeast and bacteria. 
3) Is not required for low acid, sweet wines that have not undergone MLF. 
4) A filter whose pores can block up easily. 

 1,2,3 & 4
 2, 3 & 4
 1, 2 & 4
 1, 3

 1, 2 & 4

57

Which packaging option is best at preserving fresh fruity wines?

 Bag in box
 Plastic bottles
 Glass bottles with Screw Cap
 Glass bottles with Cork

 Glass bottles with Screw Cap

58

You are a bottle of wine smelling of damp cardboard. What was the vessel the wine came in?

 Bag in box
 Plastic bottles
 Glass bottles with Cork
 Glass bottles with Screw Cap

 Glass bottles with Cork (cork taint)

59

Which one of these is not a method used in anerobic winemaking?

 Use of SO2 at harvest time
 Picking at night when it is cooler
 Fermentation in Stainless Steel
 The use of specially cultured yeast strains

 The use of specially cultured yeast strains

60

Which one of these is NOT a flavour associated with oak barrels?

 Cloves
 Toast
 Leather
 Vanilla

 Leather

61

What is the correct order for typical red wine production?

 Crush, press, ferment, maturation, bottling
 Crush, ferment, press, bottling, maturation
 Crush, ferment, press, maturation, bottling
 Crush, Ferment, maturation, press, bottling

Crush, ferment, press, maturation, bottling

62

Sulphur Dioxide is an antiseptic, which one of these is the least susceptible?

 Saccharomyces cerevisiae
 Brettanomyces
 Lactic bacteria

 Saccharomyces cerevisiae

63

Which of the following is the main yeast used for wine production?

 Saccharomyces cerevisiae
 Brettanomyces
 Lactic bacteria

 Saccharomyces cerevisiae

64

Which of the following can result in an aroma sticking plaster, smoked meat and or leather notes to a wine?

 Saccharomyces cerevisiae
 Brettanomyces
 Lactic bacteria

 Brettanomyces

65

Which of the following converts Malic acid to Lactic acid?

 Saccharomyces cerevisiae
 Brettanomyces
 Lactic bacteria

 Lactic bacteria

66

During winemaking pressing grapes harder will?

 Increase the amount of wine and it will be smoother.
 Decrease the amount of wine. Higher alcohols will be squeezed out that evaporates as angle share during maturation. 
 Increase the amount of juice but at the risk of increased bitter components.
 If the pressure is high enough you can extract blood from a stone mixed in the grapes.

Increase the amount of juice but at the risk of increased bitter components.

67

Adding an Alkali will?

 Increase the acidity in the wine or must
 Decrease the acidity in the wine or must
 increase the tannins in the wine or must
 decrease the tannins in the wine or must

Decrease the acidity in the wine or must

68

Adding tartaric acid to a wine will?

 Increase the acidity in the wine or must
 Decrease the acidity in the wine or must
 This is known as de-acidification
 Increase the tannins in the wine or must
 Decrease the tannins in the wine or must

 Increase the acidity in the wine or must

69

RCGM means?

 Racing car from General Motors. 
 Restrict Carbonation Generating Maceration
 Rectified Concentrated Grape Must
 Reduced Concentrated Grape Maceration

 Rectified Concentrated Grape Must

70

Which is not a by-product of Alcoholic fermentation?

 Heat
 Flavour
 Carbon Dioxide
 Sugar

Sugar

71

What is the typical range at which yeast can ferment?

 0°C to 38°C
 5°C to 58°C
 15°C to 58°C
 5°C to 35°C

 5°C to 35°C

72

What is the typical range of fermenting white wines?

 12°C to 32°C
 4°C to 12°C
 30°C to 32°C
 12°C to 22°C

 12°C to 22°C

73

What is the typical range of fermenting red wines?

 12°C to 32°C
 5°C to 12°C
 20°C to 32°C
 12°C to 22°C

 20°C to 32°C

74

Which one of these will not stop fermentation?

 Lowering the temperature to near 0°C
 When the alcohol rises to over 15% abv
 Adding SO2
 Chaptalisation

 Chaptalisation

75

Which statement about Ambient Yeast is False?

 Ambient Yeast must be kept at an ambient temperature of 18-20°C to ferment correctly
 It is found throughout the winery and on the bloom
 Adds complexity to the wine but results can be random 
 Many ambient yeast can be killed off with SO2

Ambient Yeast must be kept at an ambient temperature of 18-20°C to ferment correctly

76

Which statement about Malolactic Fermentation MLF is false?

 The bacteria is sensitive to SO2 and can be stopped by it.
 Lowers the perceived acidity in a wine by converting the crisp malo acid to softer lactic acid
 Can suppress the varietal purity and can add butter, hazelnut flavours
 All white wines and most reds undergo MLF

 All white wines and most reds undergo MLF

77

MLF can be inhibited by?

 All of the below.
 Filtering out the bacteria
 Adding SO2 after alcoholic fermentation
 Keeping the wine cool

 All of the below.

78

Which statement is true about Small barrels?

 They have the largest effect on wines, giving more flavour, tannins and oxidative effects
 They have less effect on the wine. giving less flavour. tannins and oxidative effects
 Are much cheaper to make and use so are more cost effective.
 Are perfect for barrel fermentation of red wines

They have the largest effect on wines, giving more flavour, tannins and oxidative effects

79

Which statement about Skin contact is false?

 Colour flavour and tannins are extracted from the skin
 The longer the skin contact the more the extraction
 Not all red wines are made from skin contact
 Many whites are made without skin contact.

Not all red wines are made from skin contact

80

Free run juice is?

 Less likely to contain bitterness from pips
 Juice that has escaped the winery and can be used by anybody who has found it.
 Is the most coloured of all juice off the press.
 A sequel movie to Free Willy and Cool Running. It's about a Jamaican bob sled team called Juice

Less likely to contain bitterness from pips

81

Which of these is often done to both red and white wines?

 Barrel fermentation
 Post fermentation skin contact
 Bleeding (Saignee)
 Chaptalisation

 Chaptalisation

82

Which one of these is not a method of increasing extraction during wine making?

 Rotary Fermenters
 Rack & Return
 Punching down
 Punch up

 Punch up

83

Which one of these is not a method of increasing extraction during wine making?

 Pumping over
 Bleeding (Saignee)
 Post fermentation Maceration
 MLF

 MLF

84

Which is a method of concentrating grape sugars?

 Passerillage
 Passito
 Ice wine production
 All of the above

 All of the above

85

In the image below, in red wine making what does the A represent

Q image thumb

Crush

86

A wine for long term storage needs?

 High tannin
 High Acidity
 High alcohol
 Any of the above

 Any of the above

87

Gross Lees is?

 The mass of skin left over after pressing a white wine
 Dead yeast and grape skins that fall out of the wine shortly after fermentation has ended.
 Short hand for Sur Lie, a snooty wine waiter
 Watching my mate Lee picking his nose... and eating it. Yuck!

Dead yeast and grape skins that fall out of the wine shortly after fermentation has ended.

88

A Depth filter is?

 A type of filter similar to a sieve. That is a sheet with lots of holes in it, where larger particles get caught.
 A type of filter that is made up of material such as earth. When the product is passed through the filter, larger particles are caught amongst the material.
 Adding a material to the wine that passes down through the wine attracting and capturing particles.
 All of the above

A type of filter that is made up of material such as earth. When the product is passed through the filter, larger particles are caught amongst the material.

89

Sedimentation is?

 Adding a material to the wine that passes down through the wine attracting and capturing particles.
 When large particles settle at the bottom of the tank and the wine is decanted off.
 The building of humus layers in the vineyard.
 None of the above.

When large particles settle at the bottom of the tank and the wine is decanted off.

90

A friend opens a bottle of wine and discovers what looks like glass in the bottom of the cork. You tell her to?

 Don't worry, you can drink it, just filter out the glass first.
 Don't worry, they are tartrate crystals, harmless.
 OMG this is terrible, let's call injury lawyers and sue.
 It is residual yeast from a second fermentation in bottle. It’s harmless but does the wine taste ok, is it fizzy?

Don't worry, they are tartrate crystals, harmless.

91

What are the 4 steps of white grape processing?

Destemming (if needed)

Crushing

Cold maceration

Pressing

92

How would you acidify grape juice?

Add Tartaric acid

93

How would you de-acidify grape juice?

Addition of various alkali

94

How would you sweeten grape juice (or finished wine)?

Addition of Rectified Concentrated Grape Juice, Sussreserve or sugar Chaptelisation

95

List 4 considerations during white wine making

Skin contact

Clarification

Fermentation temperature

Choice of vessel

  • Inert
  • Inert (+ Oak)
  • Barrels

96

List 4 considerations in Red wine making

Pre-fermentation extraction

Extraction during fermentation

Oak inserts

Post-fermentation extraction

Pressing - free run Vs press wine

97

Give 4 reasons why you might blend wine

Balance

Consistency

Style

Complexity

Price

98

List the 3 methods of clarification

Sedimentation

Fining

Filtration

  • depth filtration
  • surface filtration

99

List 3 things you might want to stabilise your wine against

Tartrate

Microbiological

Oxygen

100

What are the 4 human factors affecting style, quality and price of wines?

Grape growing

Winemaking

Maturation

Market forces

101

What are the three ways to make Rosé wine?

Briefly summarise them

Direct Pressing - Grapes crushed and pressed (as for white wine) being careful not to press too hard. Fermented cool as for white wine. Used for delicately coloured Rosés

Short Maceration - Grapes crushed and allowed short maceration. Free run juice drained and fermented at low temp as for white wine. Produces darker Rosés.

Blending - Small amount red wine added to white. In EU only permitted in Champagne. Some fruity inexpensive New World Rosés made this way

102

How is White Zinfandel made?

Same as any other Rose but with Zinfandel grapes

De-stem grapes then Direct Pressing or Short Maceration (actually made by Saignee method!)

Cool ferment at 12~22 and stop ferment whilst still some resid sugar by cooling and filtering.

NB Some fully fermented, dry, White Zin is also made