Words Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology > Words > Flashcards

Flashcards in Words Deck (79):
1

Abduction

Movement of a body part away from the midline

2

Adduction

Movement of a body part toward the midline

3

Amphiarthrosis joint

A joint with minimal movement

4

Anterior

Toward the front

5

Articular capsule

Made up of the outer fibrous capsule and inner synovial membrane in synovial joints

6

Articular disc

An intracapsular structure that is attached to the fibrous capsule, and helps to stabilise the joint and assist articulation

7

Avulsion fracture

A fracture near the point where a tendon or ligament attaches to the bone. The ligament or tendon may even pull off a piece of the bone. It is most common in children

8

Axial (transverse) plane

Divides the body into top and bottom

9

Bursa

An intracapsular structure, a sac of connective tissue lined with a synovial membrane that reduces friction between moving parts.

10

Canaliculi

Minute canals that contain the processes of the osteocytes and provide route for transportation of nutrients and waste by connecting with other lacunae and with the central canals

11

Cartilaginous joints

A joint with no joint cavity, held together within cartilage. E.g. pubic symphysis

12

Closed fracture

A fracture where the broken bone does no t penetrate the skin

13

Compression fracture

A fracture where the normal vertebral body of the spine is compressed to a smaller height.

14

Condyle

Smooth, rounded articular surface, most often part of a joint

15

Coronal plane

Divides the body into front and back

16

Cortical bone

compact bone for strength and protection

17

Crest (of bone)

A narrow ridge

18

Deep

Further from the surface

19

Depression

Displacement of a part inward or downward

20

Diarthrosis

A joint with free movement. Eg. a synovial joint

21

Distal

Further from the connecting joint

22

Elevation

Being raised upwards

23

Epiphysial vessels

Supply blood into the epiphysis of the bone

24

Extension

The straightening of a limb; enlarging the angle between two parts

25

Facet

Small, smooth, flat articular surface of a bone

26

Fibrous joint

A joint with no joint cavity, held together by fibrous tissues e.g. sutures in skull

27

Flexion

Bending of a joint to approximate the part it connects (closing the angle)

28

Foramen

A hole in a bone

29

Fossa

Depression or cavity in a bone

30

Fovea

Small pit or depression in a bone

31

Greenstick fracture

An incomplete break in a bone; more common in children with more pliable bones

32

Hairline fracture

A fracture usually caused by overuse or a fall or incident where the bone experiences a very high force

33

Haversian canal

Central canal containing blood vessels, nerves, lymph vessels

34

Head (of bone)

Prominent, expanded part of a bone

35

Hyaline Cartilage

Covers articular aspects of bone in synovial joints

36

Impacted fracture

A fracture which could have been caused by a fall, strike, or twisting/bending of bone. Multiple hairline appearance

37

Inferior

Closer to the bottom/ lower down

38

Inner synovial fluid

The articular capsule secretes this to lubricate the joint and supply nutrients to the articular cartilage

39

Intracapsular structures

Fat pads, articular discs, bursa, ligaments

40

Joint cavity

Contains synovial fluid in synovial joints

41

Lacunae

Small spaces in bone that contain osteocytes

42

Lamellae

Rings of bone matrix

43

Lateral

Further from the midline

44

Lateral rotation

Movement of a limb away from its midline

45

Ligament

Intracapsular structure made of fibrous tissue which attaches bone to bone and stabilises joints

46

Line (of bone)

Slightly raised, elongated ridge

47

Medial

Closer to the midline

48

Medial rotation

Rotation of a limb toward its midline

49

Metaphyseal vessels

Blood supply into the metaphysis of the bone

50

Multi-fragmentary fracture

A complete fracture where the bone is broken into several fragments

51

Open fracture

The broken bone penetrates the skin

52

Osteon

Basic structural unit of cortical bone

53

Outer fibrous capsule

The part of the articular capsule that can be formed from tendons or muscles

54

Periosteal vessels

Blood supply into the diaphysis of the bone

55

Posterior

Closer to the back

56

Process (bone)

A projection or portuberance on the bone

57

Proximal

Closer to the connecting joint

58

Sagittal plane

Divides the body into left and right

59

Simple fracture

A fracture where the bone is broken into two fragments

60

Spine

Long, narrow, pointed projection on a bone

61

Superficial

Closer to the surface

62

Superior

Closer to the top

63

Sutures

Fibrous joints; interlocking projections of bone plates in the skull

64

Synarthrosis

A joint with no movement. Eg sutures of the skull

65

Synovial joints

3 main features; joint cavity, hyaline cartilage, articular cartilage

66

Tendon

Connects muscle to bone and does not stretch

67

Trabeculae

Columns of bone in trabecular bone, arranged along the lines of stress

68

Trabecular bone

Cancellous/spongy bone

69

Trochlea

A smooth articular surface at the joint of a bone

70

Trachanter

A large projection found only on the femur, where the hip and thigh muscles attach

71

Tubercle

A small rounded projection on the bone

72

Tuberosity

A large projection on the bone with a rougher surface

73

Nucleus

Powerhouse, contains DNA

74

Rough ER

Protein translation, folding and quality control. Protein transfer to golgi apparatus

75

Smooth ER

Lipid synthesis

76

Golgi apparatus

Recieves proteins and lipids from ER. Modifies, sorts into vesicles.

77

Lysosome

Form in the golgi. Contain digestive enzymes

78

Mitochondria

Main site of respiration and ATP synthesis

79

Cytoskeleton

Actin, microtubule, and intermediate filament for support and movement of cell