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Flashcards in Working Memory Model Deck (12):

who was the model created by?

Baddley & Hitch (1974)


what does the model suggest?

that the STM is a dynamic processor of different types of information using sub-units coordinated by a central-decision making system.


what is the central executive?

The central executive is essentially an attentional process that monitors incoming data, makes decisions and allocates slave systems to tasks – the slave systems are described below. The central executive, as a part of the STM, has a very limited processing capacity.


what is the visuo spatial sketchpad and what does it break down into?

The first slave system is the visuo-spatial sketchpad, this stores visual and/or spatial information when required. It has a limited capacity and it split into two: the visual cache stores visual data and the inner scribe records the arrangement of objects in the visual field.


what is the phonological loop and what does it break down into?

The phonological loop deals with auditory information (i.e coding is acoustic) and preserves the order in which information arrives. The PL is divided into the phonological store (which stores what you hear) and the articulatory control system (which allows rehearsal of up to two seconds.)


what is the episodic buffer?

This was later added to the model in 2000 by Baddeley. It is a temporary store for information, integrating the visual spatial and verbal information processed by the other slave systems. The episodic buffer links working memory to LTM by basically recording the current events.


what is a slave system?

a component of the working memory that deals with a designated task


What are the positive evaluation points for the model?

- dual task performance (Baddeley et al 1975)
- word length effect (Baddeley)
- clinical evidence (Shallice and Warrington 1970) KF - amnesia


What are the negative evaluation points for the model?

- Lack of clarity within the central executive.
- KF not relevant as he is a specific case who has brain damage from trauma


explain Baddeley's findings in the dual task performance. What case study could this be backed up by?

Participants had more difficulty doing two visual tasks (tracking a light and describing the letter F) rather than a visual and verbal task as then slave systems are not competing. This can be backed up by KF


Explain KF.

Shallice and Warrington (1970) studied a patient KF who had suffered brain damage. He had poor STM ability for verbal information but could process visual information just fine, showing that it was only his phonological loop that was damaged.


What is the issue with the central executive? What did Baddley quote about the CE?

It doesn't really explain anything - it's just an assumption. 'the central executive is the most important but the least understood component of the working memory.' Some psychologists believe it to contain several components, showing that the model may not have been fully explained.