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Flashcards in Works Trivia Deck (210):

Year of Wagner's Die Walkure:

1870 (first performance in Munich); 1876 (first performance of Der Ring des Nibelungen in Festival Theatre in Bayreuth)


Characteristics of Mahler's Symphony no. 4:

contains some of Mahler's most joyful and luminous passages


Year of Messiaen's Quatuor pour la fin du temps:



Which Part work are we studying?

Cantate Domino canticum novum (O sing to the Lord a new song)


Specific form of Mahler's Symphony no. 4:

can be viewed as modified strophic wit a rondo-like design


Tempo of Part's Cantate Domino canticum novum:

slower tempo


Which Tchaikovsky work are we studying?

Romeo and Juliet Overture


Performing forces of Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire:

- set for a female reciter (mezzo soprano in German-translated from the original French) and a chamber music ensemble of 5 players using 8 instruments: piano, flute/piccolo, clarinet/bass clarinet, violin/viola, and cello
- Der Mondfleck uses voice, piccolo, clarinet in B flat, violin, cello, and piano


Which Brahms work are we studying?

Ein deutsches Requiem (A German Requiem) - fourth Movement: Wie lieblich sind deine Wohnungen (How Lovely is Thy Dwelling Place, O Lord of Hosts!)


Which Mendelssohn work are we studying?

Violin Concerto in e minor, op. 64, first movement


Performing forces of Prokofiev's Romeo and Juliet Suite:

large orchestra with expanded percussion


Historical context of Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet Overture:

- romantic composers drawn to the works of Shakespeare, particularly to Romeo and Juliet
- often referred to as a overture-fantasy


Performing forces of Brahm's Ein deutsches Requiem:

soprano and baritone soloists, SATB 4-part chorus, orchestra


Historical context of Messiaen's Quatuor pour la fin du temps:

- created against the dismal background of a prisoner of war camp (WWII), as he was drafted into the French army and capture by Germans in 1940
- among the prisoners were 3 other French musicians: a violinist, a cellist, and a clarinetist. Wrote chamber music piece for them, soon added piano part
- composing this helped sustain him through this time
- concert took place in 1941 in front of 5000 prisoners from France, Belgium, and other countries


"Wozzeck" juxtaposes the characters how?

- juxtaposes the realistic characters of Wozzeck and Marie against a back drop of "types"-characters sketched so broadly that they are almost cartoonish in their make up (The Captain, The Doctor, and The Drum Major)
- contrast adds much needed humour and allows the audience to empathize more easily with the main characters


Historical context of Verdi's La Traviata:

- initially considered a failure
- Violetta is one of the most beloved characters in Italian opera. Verdi was moved to write some of his most beautiful bel canto melodies for this character


Characters of Verdi's La Traviata:

- Violetta Valery (coloratura soprano): a courtesan in 19th century Paris
- Alfredo Germont (tenor): a young aristocrat
- Giorgio Germont (baritone): Alfredo’s father
- Baron Douphol (baritone): Violetta’s lover
- Flora Bervoix (mezzo soprano): Violetta’s friend


Performing forces of Ligeti's Atmospheres:

large orchestra without percussion


Specific form of Brahm's Ein deutsches Requiem:

- Rondo Form (A-B-A'-C-A")
- lyrical choral melody unifies 5-part rondo structure


Specific form of Schumann's Dichterliebe:

- strophic
- first 3 verses are set to the same music (strophic)
- strophic structure altered in 4th verse


Tempo of Ravel's Jeux d'eau:



Form of Ravel's Jeux d'eau:

- resembles sonata form
- based on 2 motives in the manner of a first movement of a sonata, without subjecting itself to the Classical tonal plan


Tempo of Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire:

- Der Mondfleck: Sehr rasche (very quickly)
- O alter Duft aus Märchenzeit: Bewegt (with motion)


Genre of Brahm's Ein deutsches Requiem:

Sacred choral music


General structure of Wagner's Die Walkure:

3 acts


General structure of Liszt's La Campanella:

set of 6 masterpieces for piano


Year of Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet Overture:

1870 first premiere date


Genre of Webern's Symphony op. 21:

- orchestral music, chamber symphony
- although title reflects a genre popularized by the first Viennese School, the work itself represents a departure from 18th and 19the century symphonic practice


Genre of Ravel's Jeux d'eau:

solo piano work


Which Prokofiev work are we studying?

Romeo and Juliet, Suite no. 2, op. 64- Act I Scene 4: "The Montagues and Capulets: The Capulet Ball"


Performing forces of Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto:

solo violin and orchestra


Genre of Smetana's Vltava:

symphonic poem (tone poem)


Source of text for Wagner's Die Walkure:

A fusion of Norse mythology and an epic medieval poem called the “Nibelungenlied” (The Song of the Nibelungs): a complex story involving gods and mortals


Characteristics of Liszt's La Campanella:

- transcended the limitations of the keyboard
- main theme requires light touch (staccato) to imitate bell
- highly virtuosic style
- each variation builds and becomes more elaborate and faster than the previous until dramatic closing in loud octaves


Meter of Prokofiev's Romeo and Juliet Suite:

- 4/4 in introduction, A section, A' section
- 3/4 in B section


Meter of Schumann's Dichterliebe:



Year of Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire:



Source of text of Ravel's Jeux d'eau:

includes an excerpt of a poem by Henri de Regnier which translates as "The river god laughs at the water as it tickles him"


Tempo of Brahm's Ein deutsches Requiem:

Massig bewegt (moderately fast)


Historical context of Smetana's Vltava:

- Bohemia was caught up in a surge of nationalist fever that culminated in a series of uprises agains Austrian rule in 1848, Smetana joined
- Ma vlast: cycle of 6 symphonic poems inspired by the beauty of the Bohemia countryside, rhythm of Bohemian folk songs/dances, and pageantry of its legends
- Vltava: Bohemian river Moldau (Vltava in Czech) becomes a poetic symbol


Plot summary of Ravel's Jeux d'eau:

inspired by the noise of water, the waterfalls, and the brooks


Genre of Liszt's La Campanella:

Piano music, etude


Context within whole work for Prokofiev's Romeo and Juliet Suite:

abbreviated version of what Prokofiev included in the ballet for the ball scene


Which Schumann work are we studying?

Dichterliebe (A Poet's Love), op. 48: Und wussten's die Blumen (In the Lovely Month of May)


Source of text for Part's Cantate Domino canticum novum:

- language: Latin
- Psalm 95 of Catholic bible
- Psalm 96 of Protestant bible


Year of Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto:



Meter of Bartok's Concerto for Orchestra:

- non-symmetrical (irregular) rhythm and changing meter (alternating between 2/4 and 5/8, also 3/4)... unpredictable charm


Context within whole work of Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire:

- Der Mondfleck is the 4th text in 3rd group
- O alter Duft aus Märchenzeit is the 7th text in the 3rd group


Genre of Prokofiev's Romeo and Juliet Suite:

Originally composed for ballet, later reworked into orchestral suites


Performing forces of Berg's Wozzeck:

voice, orchestra, children's chorus


Meter of Brahm's Ein deutsches Requiem:



Specific form of Ligeti's Atmospheres:

according to Ligeti, overall form is like a single, broad arch with individual sections melting together


Ravel's Jeux d'eau was dedicated to:

Gabriel Faure


Performing forces of Part's Cantate Domino canticum novum:

- SATB chorus, organ
- voices often paired SA and TB
- changing textures: 1 voice, 2 voices, and 4 voices


Which Messiaen work are we studying?

Quatuor pour la fin du temps (Quartet for the End of Time)- 2nd movement: "Vocalise, pour l'Ange qui annonce la fin du Temps" (Vocalise, for the Angel who Announces the End of Time)


Genre of Ligeti's Atmospheres:

orchestral music


Year of Part's Cantate Domino canticum novum:

1977, revised in 1996


Historical context of Brahm's Ein deutsches Requiem:

- rooted in protestant tradition
- not religious in a conventional sense, composed because of the deaths of Robert Schumann (teacher and friend), and mother
- desired for music to have universal appeal: chose biblical text but avoided any specifically Christian references
- Originally wanted to call the work "A Human Requiem" because he didn't want any nationalist sentiments to be assumed


Source of text for Mahler's Symphony no. 4:

4th movement: Des Knaben Wunderhorn (The Youth's Magic Horn)


Year of Brahm's Ein deutsches Requiem:

1868 (6 movement version), 1869 (7 movement version)


General structure of Bartok's Concerto for Orchestra:

- 5 movements, called a concerto because of its tendency "to treat the single orchestral instruments in a 'concertina' or soloistic manner"
- virtuoso is the entire orchestra


Year of Bartok's Concerto for Orchestra:



Performing forces of Messiaen's Quatuor pour la fin du temps:

- clarinet, violin, cello, piano
- unusual instrumentation was dictated by the circumstances of his confinement (violin and clarinet brought, cello without 1 string, old broken piano found at camp)


Structure of Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto

- 3 movements, combine old classic ideals with new ideas of unity (3 movements played without pause)
- reference back to 1st movement occurs in 2nd movement, hinting cyclical form


Performing forces of Smetana's Vltava:



Who was Liszt's La Campanella dedicated to?

Clara Schumann


Which Schoenberg work are we studying?

Pierrot lunaire (Moonstruck Pierrot), op. 21- Nos. 18 "Der Mondfleck" and Nos. 21 "O alter Duft aus Marchenzeit"


Meter of Webern's Symphony op. 21:



Form of Part's Cantate Domino canticum novum:

4 sections


General structure of Webern's Symphony op. 21:

- 2 movements, based on the same tone row
- takes just under 10 mins. to play entire symphony


Tempo of Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto:

- allegro molto appassionato (very fast and impassioned) in exposition
- agitato (varied moods and dynamics) in development
- più presto (faster tempo) in coda


General structure of Messiaen's Quatuor pour la fin du temps:

- 8 movements
- angelic song from 2nd movement returns in the 7th, 5th and 8th movements are linked by their spiritual message; 1st and 3rd movements use bird songs


Specific form of Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet Overture:

Sonata form:
- introduction
- exposition
- codetta
- development
- recapitulation
- coda


What makes Liszt's La Campanella physically challenging to play?

- technical difficulties
- exceeds natural span of hand
- right hand must pivot back and forth very quickly


Source of text of Prokofiev's Romeo and Juliet Suite:

Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare


Meter of Wagner's Die Walkure:

endless melody


Ravel's Jeux d'eau was premiered by:

Ricardo Vines


Which Liszt work are we studying?

La Campanella (The Little Bell) from Grandes etudes de Paganini


Year of Ravel's Jeux d'eau:

1902 (date of premiere)


Language of Verdi's La Traviata:



Which Bartok work are we studying?

Concerto for Orchestra-4th movement: Interrupted Intermezzo


Year of Prokofiev's Romeo and Juliet Suite:



General structure of Berg's Wozzeck:

- 3 acts with 5 scenes in each act
- 3 acts usually performed without intermission
- 5 short scenes linked by brief orchestral interludes


Historical context of Schumann's Dichterliebe:

song cycle written during his year of song (1840) at very fast speed


Characters of Berg's Wozzeck:

- Wozzeck: feeble minded corporal (Baritone)
- Marie: Wozzeck's common law wife (Soprano)
- The Boy: son of Wozzeck and Marie (boy soprano)
- The Captain: his superior officer (Tenor)
- The Doctor: coldly scientific man (Bass)
- The Drum Major: rival for Marie's attention (Tenor)


General Structure of Brahm's Ein deutsches Requiem:

- 7 movements
- loosely symmetrical structure (arch formation: connection between 1&7, 2&6, 3&5 movements)
- originally a 6 movement work to commemorate Schumann, added 5th movement after initial premiere in memory of mother


Plot summary of Berg's Wozzeck, Act III Scene 4:

- Wozzeck returns to the edge of the pond where Marie's body lies
- searches for knife used to kill Marie, finds it, and tosses it into pond
- fearing that it may be found by bathers, he wades into the water hoping to retrieve it, but drowns
- The Captain and the Doctor pass by and hear the sound of someone drowning, but they hurry off


Which Smetana work are we studying?

Vltava (The Moldau) from Ma vlast (My Country)


What did Alexandre Dumas base his novel and play on?

the real life and death of Marie Duplessis: one of the most famous Parisian courtesans. She was beautiful and many men fell for her, but died of tuberculosis at 23, debt-ridden and alone


Briefly summarize Berg's Wozzeck.

- Wozzeck is subject to Captain's taunts and Doctor's dietary experiments, which undermines his state of mind, and is further unhinged by his suspicion of Marie's infidelity
- sees gold earrings as proof of Marie's involvement with Drum Major
- Drum Major boasts, then beats him up
- Wozzeck meets Marie by the pond and stabs her to death
- driven by his delusions, he wades into the water to find the knife he threw in there and drowns


Meter of Ravel's Jeux d'eau:



Specific form of Webern's Symphony op. 21:

- theme and 7 variations followed by a coda
- symmetrical, arch shape shows the workings of Webern's mind: variations 1&7 are double canons, 2&6 are trios, 3&5 are pointillistic in effect, and the 4th serves as a turning point of the movement


How did Verdi's situation mirror the story of La Traviata by Alexandre Dumas?

- In the same year, Verdi visited Paris for the first time and fell in love with Giuseppina Strepponi (retired opera singer with whom he had worked with in Milan several years earlier; loving relationship that was to last for 50+ years). Before marriage, they suffered judgement of many fellow Italians


Plot summary of Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire, Der Mondfleck:

Pierrot is out to have fun, but is disturbed by a white spot (a patch of moonlight) on the collar of his black jacket. Not realizing it is merely a moonbeam, he rubs and rubs but cannot get rid of it


Specific form of Prokofiev's Romeo and Juliet Suite:



How was the play "Woyzek" discovered?

Georg Buchner died at 23, leaving behind a legacy of documents. Decades later "Woyzek was discovered. It was a jumbled collection of approx. 30 scenes, barely legible, in no order. Both the play and the opera represent a reconstruction


Plot summary of Berg's Wozzeck, Act III Scene 5:

- children are playing outside Marie's house when one child announces that Marie is dead
- they all go off to view the body except for Marie's son
- uncomprehending the news, he circles the stage on his hobby-horse singing "hopp, hopp, hopp!"
- noticing the others are gone, he rides off on his hobby horse


Genre of Part's Cantate Domino canticum novum:

Sacred choral music


Context within the whole work for Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet Overture:

independent concert work; not connected to the opera


Librettist for Verdi's La Traviata:

Francesco Marie Piave


Year of Verdi's La Traviata:

1853 (first performance in Venice)


Performing forces of Schumann's Dichterliebe:

solo voice (German) and piano


Characters of Wagner's Die Walkure:

- Wotan (baritone): ruler of the gods
- Fricka: wife of Wotan (mezzo soprano); goddess of marriage
- Valkyries: Brunnhilde and her 8 sisters (soprano, mezzo sopranos); warrior daughters of Wotan and Erda (an earth spirit)
- Siegmund (Heldentenor): mortal son of Wotan; Sieglinde’s twin brother
- Sieglinde (soprano): mortal daughter of Wotan; Siegmund’s twin sister
- Hunding (bass): Sieglinde’s husband; Siegmund’s enemy
- Brunnhilde (Soprano): The Valkyrie of the title; favourite daughter of Wotan


Plot Summary of Messiaen's Quatuor pour la fin du temps:

The Revelation of St. John (Chapter 10)
- angel descending from sky (description)
- sets right foot on sea, left foot on earth, raises his hands to the sky and share by Him saying: There shall be no more time, but on the day of the 7th Angel's trumpet the mystery of God shall be accomplished


Historical context of Bartok's Concerto for Orchestra:

- 2 years before his death from leukaemia, Bartok was hospitalized
- 2 Hungarian compatriots, Fritz Reiner (conductor) and Joseph Szigeti (Violinist) petitioned the Koussevitzsky Foundation to commission this
- Bartok received a $1000 commission from Serge Koussevitzsky (conductor of Boston Symphony Orchestra), Bartok finished this for him in 7 weeks


General Structure of Smetana's Vltava:

set of 6 tone poems


Year of Mahler's Symphony no. 4:



General Structure of Mahler's Symphony no. 4:

4 movments


What hallmarks of Tchaikovsky's musical style are revealed in Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet Overture?

- mournful lyricism
- vivid orchestration
- pathos (pitifulness)


Historical context of Ravel's Jeux d'eau:

- Ravel's first important work for the piano
- inspired by Liszt's similarly titled piano work "Les jeux d'eau a la Villa d'Este" (Fountains at the Villa d'Este)


Historical context of Ligeti's Atmospheres:

- composer descried his procedure as "building with blocks of sound"
- illustrates Ligeti's use of micro polyphony


Which Verdi work are we studying?

La Traviata (The Lost One)- Act II Scene 2 "Invitato" to end of act


Tempo of Liszt's La Campanella:

- allegretto (fast and light)
- coda marked animato (animated)


Meter of Berg's Wozzeck:

- Act III Scene 4 and Orchestral Interlude: 3/4
- Act III Scene 5: 12/8


Specific form of Bartok's Concerto for Orchestra:

Rondo-like form with recurrences of opening folk tune (A-B-A'-C-B'-A")


Source of text for Messiaen's Quatuor pour la fin du temps:

catholic bible: revelation of St. John (Chapter 10)


Which Ravel work are we studying?

Jeux d'eau (Water Games)


Performing forces for Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet Overture:

orchestra with literary or pictorial associations


Context within whole work of Messiaen's Quatuor pour la fin du temps:

8 movements are symbolic of the 7 days in which God created the world, followed by eternity, an endless 8th day


General structure of Verdi's La Traviata:

3 acts


Mood of Messiaen's Quatuor pour la fin du temps:

- A: Presque vif, joyeux (fairly lively, joyous)
- B: lyrical, tender, though also eerie in character
- in light of dreadful conditions, this quartet testifies to the courage of human spirit. Strength and mysticism heard immediately


What was Berg's Wozzeck based on?

- Buchner's play "Woyzek"
- Berg was very affected by the story after seeing it in 1914, and began making sketches for an opera based on the play


Genre of Messiaen's Quatuor pour la fin du temps:

chamber music


Plot summary of Brahm's Ein deutsches Requiem:

- aim was to console the living and lead them to a serene acceptance of death as a inevitable part of life
- song of mourning for all of humanity
- 4th movement: the text offers up a song in praise of the gifts of heaven
- opening words "Blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted" reveal his intention: to deliver universal message of hope and consolation


Which Mahler work are we studying?

Symphony no. 4 in G Major, 4th movement


Context within whole work for Liszt's La Campanella:

- 3rd etude
- inspired by the finale of Paganini's Second Violin Concerto
- drew 2 musical sections from Paganini's Second Violin Concerto and alternated them in continually varied figurations: A section in minor, B section in Major etc.


General structure of Prokofiev's Romeo and Juliet Suite:

3 symphonic suites and a collection of 10 piano pieces


Source of text for Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire:

- from the stock characters of the Italian "commedia dell'arte" (comedy of the arts): comic theatrical entertainment that originated in the mid 16th century
- texts from a collection of poems by Albert Giraud (Belgian writer)
- Giraud's short poems=series of miniatures balanced by variety in structure, texture (dense to sparse), and instrumentation


Tempo of Smetana's Vltava:

allegro commodo non agitato (fast, not agitated)


Performing forces of Ravel's Jeux d'eau:



Meter of Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire:

- Der Mondfleck: 3/4
- O alter Duft aus Märchenzeit: 4/4


Mood of Berg's Wozzeck:

- Act III Scene 4: frantic, chilling orchestration to reinforce the grisly events
- Orchestral Interlude: meditating
- Act III Scene 5: spirited, heartbreaking


Tempo of Webern's Symphony op. 21:

- Theme: Sehr ruhig (very quiet)
- V1: Lebhafter (livelier)
- V2: Sehr lebhaft (very lively)
- V3: Wieder massiger (again more moderately)
- V4: Ausserst ruhig (extremely quiet), slowest tempo within the movement
- V5: Sehr lebhaft (very lively)
- V6: Marschmassig (marchlike)
- V7: Etwas breiter (somewhat broadened)
- Coda: delicate 'raindrop' effect


Which Berg work are we studying?

Wozzeck- Act III Scene 4: "Das Messer?" and Orchestral Interlude Act III Scene 5: "Ringel, Ringel, Rosenkranz"


Meter of Liszt's La Campanella:



What unique specifications did Wagner have for his theatre?

perfect acoustics, a specially designed orchestra pit, unobstructed sight lines, fascinating/controversial productions


Specific form of Smetana's Vltava:

- Source of the River
- River Theme
- Hunting Scene
- Peasant Wedding
- Nocturnal Scene
- River Theme
- St. John Rapids
- River Theme
- Ancient Castle Theme
- Disappearance of the River (Coda)


Musical character of Brahm's Ein deutsches Requiem:

- gentle lyricism
- emotional expressions of loss and acceptance of death
- lilting triple meter marked dolce (sweetly)


Performing forces of Mahler's Symphony no. 4:

large orchestra with mezzo soprano soloist (4th movement only)


Form of Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto:

- Exposition
- Development
- Cadenza
- Recapitulation
- Coda


Specific form of Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire:

each text is a Rondeau


Characteristics of Ligeti's Atmospheres:

- all entries are to be played imperceptibly and dolcissimo
- extreme dynamic range (pppp to ffff)


Year of Schumann's Dichterliebe:



Which Webern work are we studying?

Symphony op. 21- second movement


Source of text for Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet Overture:

Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet"


Context within whole work of Webern's Symphony op. 21:

- 1st movement, based on a tone row, is in sonata form with canonic structures
- 2nd movement is a theme with 7 variations and a coda
- both derived from the ton row of the 1st movement


Specific form of Verdi's La Traviata:

6 sections of plot


Plot summary of Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire:

- soloist takes us on a musical journey as we trace the exploits of Pierrot, a sad but mischievous clown character


Structure of Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet Overture:

single movement work


Year of Liszt's La Campanella:

1838-39, revised 1851


Language of Wagner's Die Walkure:



Plot summary of Mahler's Symphony no. 4:

this folk poem presents a child's optimistic and naive view of heaven, describing the bountiful feast prepared by the saints


Historical context of Part's Cantate Domino canticum novum:

- example of tintinnabular style
- returns to the simplicity of medieval chant for his inspiration: lyrical, conjunct lines move freely, always following the Latin text


How does extramusical connections affect Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet Overture?

it is possible to enjoy this work without considering extra musical associations, but a deeper appreciation is possible when we connect the themes from the sonata form with the characters they represent


Year of Smetana's Vltava:



Context within whole work for Brahm's Ein deutsches Requiem:

- 4th movement is positioned at the core of this work's arch design and offers a comforting vision of heaven
- 4th movement chorus "How Lovely is Thy Dwelling Place" is widely sung


Genre of Schumann's Dichterliebe:

Art Song, Lied, Song Cycle


Meter of Part's Cantate Domino canticum novum:

- none specified
- prose rhythm, follows inflections of the text; the effect resembles metric shifts


Genre of Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire:

song cycle


Which Ligeti work are we studying?



Genre of Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet Overture:

concert overture


Structure of Schumann's Dichterliebe:

- strophic form with 2 strophes treated identically
- 2 text strophes are framed by expressive piano introduction, interlude, and postlude which provide a circular shape to the song


Year of Webern's Symphony op. 21:



Genre of Berg's Wozzeck:

expressionist opera


Historical context of Wagner's Die Walkure:

- Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung) took him over 20 years to complete
- Wagner called the Ring cycle “a stage festival for 3 days with a preliminary evening”; consists of 4 operas: “Das Rheingold”, “Die Walkure", “Siegfried”, and “Gotterdammerung”


Genre of Bartok's Concerto for Orchestra:

orchestral music


Plot summary of Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet Overture:

- captures the essential emotions of the drama without trying to delineate specific plot development
- characters of Friar Laurence, Romeo, and Juliet are each identified by their own themes
- recurring feud theme evokes the conflict between the Montagues and the Capulets


Source of text for Berg's Wozzeck:

- Source of plot: 19th century Expressionist play "Woyzek" by Georg Buchner
- "Woyzek" was based on gruesome real life events
- "Woyzek" is a work intended to give voice to people who, through no fault of their own, remain victims at the mercy of an unfeeling world
- Language: German
- libretto prepared by the composer himself


Which Wagner work are we studying?

Die Walkure (The Valkyrie)- Act III Scene 4: Wotan’s Farewell to Brunnhilde: “Der Augen leuchtendes Paar" to end of act


Year of Berg's Wozzeck:



Tempo of Prokofiev's Romeo and Juliet Suite:

- Introduction: andante
- A: allegro pesante
- B: moderato tranquillo


Mood of Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire:

- light, ironical, satirical tone
- abrupt changes of mood from guilt to depression to atonement and playfulness
- musical expression of bizarre images in text
- voice part is haunting and dramatic


Plot summary of Smetana's Vltava:

- begins with the description of the birth of the river formed by two springs, one warm, one cold, which merge together
- river journeys through Bohemian forest, encounters a hunt, a wedding feast, a nocturnal scene of nymphs revelling in the moonlight, and reflections of fortresses and castles that hint at past glory and splendour
- Turbulent St. John Rapids leads to historic Vysehrad castle before the river vanishes in the distance


Specific form of Messiaen's Quatuor pour la fin du temps:



Tempo of Messiaen's Quatuor pour la fin du temps:

- opening and closing sections alternate between 2 fast paced tempos
- opens Robust, modere (with vigour, moderate tempo)
- B section marked Presque lent, impalpable lointain (rather slow, imperceptible, distant)
- A' section has return of the fast tempo


Plot summary of Bartok's Concerto for Orchestra:

3 contrasting themes: folk-like and pentatonic; broad and lyrics; interruption with Nazi invasion that erupts with violence


Year of Ligeti's Atmospheres:



Plot summary of Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire, O alter Duft aus Marchenzeit:

Pierrot revels in his memories of old times, looking out serenely on a world bathed in sunlight. With all of his ill-humour spent, he yearns for joy, and dreams of life's happy possibilities


Meter of Mahler's Symphony no. 4:



Historical context of Webern's Symphony op. 21:

- good introduction to Webern's completely original style: first modern Viennese School member to write a symphony
- is far removed from the expansion and development techniques and tonic dominant opposition traditionally associated with symphonic style


Meter of Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet Overture:



Source of text for Verdi's La Traviata:

- a play by Alexandre Dumas: "La dame aux camelias" (The Lady of the Camillias). Dumas adapted it from the novel of the same name
- At the same time that he fell in love with Strepponi, Verdi befriended Dumas; likely that he attended a performance of Dumas’ play


Plot summary of Schumann's Dichterliebe:

- songs don't tell a story, but follow a psychological progression that starts with the freshness of love and deteriorates to growing disappointment, then complete despair
- Narrator declares that if the flowers, nightingales, and stars were to know of his emotional suffering, they would each in their own way comfort him. However, only she who has caused his unhappiness can truly know his sorrow


Brief summary of Verdi's La Traviata:

- Violetta hosts lavish party, hiding her declining health due to the ravage of her consumption (tuberculosis), and meets Alfredo; gives him a camellia flower to remember her by
- Violetta and Alfredo enjoy happy existence in country side, when Giorgio convinces Violetta to leave Alfredo alone to save family reputation
- Violetta attends party at Flora's house (escorted by the baron), Alfredo attempts to avenge his honour but humiliates Violetta. Violetta reaffirms love for Alfredo
- Giorgio approves of Alfredo and Violetta's love, but show up too late, and Violetta dies in Alfredo's arms


Tempo of Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet Overture:

- Introduction marked andante non tango quasi moderato
- exposition marked allegro guisto


Tempo of Bartok's Concerto for Orchestra:



General structure of Ligeti's Atmospheres:

massive score resembles geometric patterns and is visually striking


Meter of Smetana's Vltava:

- 6/8
- 2/4 for peasant wedding
- 4/4 for nocturnal scene
- 6/8 again for ancient castle theme


Performing forces of Webern's Symphony op. 21:

chamber orchestra: violins, violas, cellos, 2 harps, clarinet, bass clarinet, 2 horns


How did Brahm's take a unorthodox approach to the requiem?

- Requiem is traditionally a mass for the dead in the Catholic Church
- rather than setting the traditional Latin text of the requiem mass, he turned to German translations of selections from the new and old testaments


Context within whole work for Smetana's Vltava:

2nd of 6 programmatic poems from Ma vlast


Librettist for Wagner's Die Walkure:

Wagner. He drafted the librettos (in reverse order) before adding music


Mood/character of Part's Cantate Domino canticum novum:

- Part's spirituality is joyfully expressed in this work
- immediately captures the leggiero (light, nimble) joyous dance-like character, interrupted by brief moments of silence at text punctuation
- rejects the sounds of modernity, returning to purity and simplicity


Historical context of Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire:

- groundbreaking song cycle that he used Sprechstimme for the very first time
- chalked white faced clown, Pierrot (Pagliaccio in Italian, Petrushka in Russian) is one of the most parodied characters
- Pierrot was a model for pantomime for centuries, known to French children through the folk song "Au clair de la lune, mon ami Pierrot" (In the light of the moon, my friend Pierrot)
- Pierrot is heard against a pointillistic background


Tempo of Mahler's Symphony no. 4:

opening marked Sehr behaglich (very comfortably)


Source of Text of Brahm's Ein deutsches Requiem:

- A German Requiem: text chosen from Old and New Testaments from German Lutheran bible: Psalms, Proverbs, Isaiah, Ecclesiastes, Paul, Mathew, Peter, John, and Revelation
- 4th movement: based on verse from Psalm 84


Plot summary of Prokofiev's Romeo and Juliet Suite:

- in this scene, the Capulet family displays its wealth and power with sombre ritual and arrogant pride
- Juliet (a Capulet), is a young maiden of 14 years. Led a confined existence and displays none of the hateful attributes of the rest of her family
- Juliet meets Paris at the ball, who is the handsome suitor chosen for her by her family
- Juliet spies another man who truly captures her heart: Romeo, son of family's arch-enemy, the Montagues


Historical context of Prokofiev's Romeo and Juliet Suite:

- many composers inspired by Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet
- 1 of only 2 non-political works from his USSR period
- became a showpiece of Soviet ballet
- the music on its own has proven very popular


Context within whole work for Verdi's La Traviata:

studying act 2 scene 2


Describe the process and impact of the creation of Berg's Wozzeck.

- delay due to military service, finished score in 1922
- premiered at the State Opera House in Berlin in Dec. 1925
- broke new ground musically, emotionally, and dramatically; critical financial success that brought Berg recognition as a composer of international standing


Meter of Messiaen's Quatuor pour la fin du temps:



Context within whole work of Bartok's Concerto for Orchestra:

4th of 5 movements


Specific form of Liszt's La Campanella:

sectional form with variations (A-B-A'-B'-A"-B"-A'"-coda)


Mood of Bartok's Concerto for Orchestra:

mood of the work represents, apart from the jesting 2nd movement, a gradual transition from the sternest of the 1st movement and lugubrious death song of the 3rd, to the life-assertion of the last


Name the Leitmotifs used in the section we are studying of Wagner's Die Walkure.

- Slumber Motive
- Magic Sleep Motive
- Spear Motive
- Magic Fire Motive
- Siegfried Motive
- Slumber and Magic Fire Motives


Historical context of Liszt's La Campanella:

- Grandes etudes de Paganini was influenced by great violin virtuoso Nicolo Paganini, and is a set of 6 technical masterpieces for piano based on Paganini's 'Caprices' for solo violin
- influenced by encounter with Chopin


Source of text of Schumann's Dichterliebe:

- 16 poems from Lyriches Intermezzo by Heinrich Heine
- poetry often presents ironic, cynical, yearning, nostalgic, bitter remarks that reflect disillusioned hopes, but the tone of the music is more neutral


Meter of Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto:



Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto written for:

violin virtuoso Ferdinand David


General structure of Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire:

21 texts, arranged in 3 groups of 7