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Flashcards in World at Risk Deck (40):

What 2 environmental ways can we classify hazards? Give an example of both

Hydro-meterological- tropical cyclones
Geophysical- earthquake/ volcanic eruptions


What 2 contextual ways can we classify hazards?

Chronic- never ending doom, e.g. global warming
Super- one off events- super volcanoes, e.g. yellowstone


What happened in Haiti on 12th Jan 2010?

7.0 earthquake on the Richter scale
- 230,000 dead + 300,000 injures
- 1.2 million homeless
- Only 211 people were rescued- 1 in every 16,588
- Cost $40 billion (1/3 of GDP)


Why were the effects on the Jan 2010 earthquake in Haiti so bad?

- Poorly governed- corruption
- Conflict + violence
- Hazard hotspot- suffers from earthquakes + tornadoes
- Limited healthcare
- In massive debt


What were the effects of the earthquake in New Zealand on 22nd Feb 2011?

6.3 earthquake on Richter scale
- 181 killed, 7000 injured
- 10,000 made homeless
- Many schools were damaged- classes shared lessons
- 80% of Christchurch had no electricity afterwards
- Cos $15.1 billion
- Christchurch could no longer hold the Rugby World Cup
- Part of the country's largest glacier broke off causing an iceberg
- Liquefaction of the ground


What is the disaster risk equation?

Risk = (Hazard x Vulnerability) / Capacity to cope


What social factors increase vulnerability?

- High population density
- Bad healthcare
- Warning systems
- Corruption
- International allies
- Sanitation and clean water supply


What environmental factors increase vulnerability?

- Location
- Topography/ relief
- Climate and previous weather
- Rock type
- Young geology?


What economic factors increase vulnerability?

- Less money = less money to spend on preperation
- Less warnings
- Less education
- Less healthcare
- Overall cost of an LEDC is lower but the impact of this loss may be higher


How have the effects of natural disasters changed?

More money being lost, more people being effected and more disasters. However, less people being killed.


What factors have caused an increase in natural disasters?

- Global Warming --> El Niño
- Urbanisation
- Population growth
- Deforestation and land degradation
- Political instability
- Better systems of recording the disasters.


What effects does global warming have on hydro-meteorological disasters?

- Increased global temps due to GHG effect
- Increased sea surface temps (SST)
- Higher SSTs create ideal conditions for storms and give storms increased power


Explain El Niño.

Every 3-5 years the pacific trade winds blow east instead of west. This causes high pressure in Australia (droughts) and low pressure in Peru (heavy rainfall). It also changes the water temperature as the current direction is also reversed.


What effect will global warming have on El Niño?

It will make El Niño more and more frequent. Potentially it could become the norm rather than the exception. in the long term el nino could mean that the rainforests die because of constant hot weather and a lack of rain.


Earthquakes in South East England?

- 4.3 on the Richter Scale, shook Kent at 8.19am on Sat 28th April 2007
- Epicenter in Dover
- Folkestone worst effected
- Falling masonry caused the most damage
- Thousands left without electricity


Storms in South East England?

- 16th October 1987
- Many parts of the country cut off from power
- 18 people died
- The storm uprooted trees, flipped cars etc


Flooding in South East England?

- 14th August 2010
- In Deal and Thanet
- Caused damage to homes
- Caused by heavy storms and flash floods


Heatwaves and Droughts in South East England?

Summer 2003
- Temps up to 38.5C in Gravesend
- 2000 more deaths than average
- hosepipe bans
- low reservoir levels
- crops? farmers?


Winter storms in South East England?

Winter 2009/10
- Maidstone hospital- 200 people broke limbs due to snow/ice
- 25 deaths
- Power failure
- School closures
- 24 inches- max snowfall


How to limit the risk of disasters in SE England?

- No fracking or dams
- No living on flood planes
- Don't over abstract water
- Have a ready and prepared emergency service
- Build more defences
- Save water


What hazards is California at risk of?

- Fog and smog
- Earthquake
- Conservative Plate Boundary
- River flooding- Sacramento Dec 2005
- Cost $245 mil
- Coastal flooding
- Drought
- Wildfires
- development
- Extreme in 2006- La niña
- Pop. has tripled since 1950- 50% of houses are at risk of fire + more arson
- Landslides- young geology, higher risk after another disaster
- Mud slide
-El niño 1987 high snowfall and rain
-17 people died
- 550 mil houses suffered property damage


Give an example of an Earthquake in California

1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake
- Cost $6-8 billion
- 62 people died
- 3757 dead
- Slip in the San Andreas fault line
- Largest to occur since 1906


Why are the monetry costs of a disaster in California so high?

There is a very high average income in California $45,000. So people lose a lot in a disaster, however they are likely to have insurance.


What risks are there in the Phillipines?

- Volcanic Eruptions- 18 active volcanoes on the islands
- Storms- risk of up to category 5 Saffir Simpson storm
-Earthquake- category 8-11 Mercalli scale
- All other types of hazard except winter storms


Give an example of a volcanic eruption in the Philippines.

Mt Pinatubu- May- August 1991
- Climaxed in mid June with one of 20th Century's biggest eruptions
- Hundreds of thousands of people were never found
- Several hundred died both during the eruptions and in the evacuation camps


Give an example of a Typhoon in the Philippines

Typhoon Bopha 25th Nov- 9th Dec 2011
- 1067 dead
- 844 injured
- Crop damage led to lack of food
- Landslide and broken bridges made it impossible to get to some areas
- Emergency centers and hospitals collapsed
- Cost $1 billion
- Fewer fish in the sea- fishermen
- Unique coral ecosystem damaged


Why are the Philippines so vulnerable?

- On lots of different islands so hard to get aid
- Low GDP- little investment in protection beforehand and cannot cope afterwards
- Poorly built houses
- Poor healthcare


What causes for Climate change are there- geological time scale?

- Milankovitch cycles- Orbital changes, every 100,000 years
- Axial Tilt- Every 41,000 years the earth tilts on it's axis, from 22.5 to 24.5
- The albido effect- cold temperatures make ice, ice reflects radiation, even colder- pos. feedback mechanism


What causes for Climate change are there- historical time scale?

Sunspots- Solar flares on the sun radiate lots of energy to earth from the sun. When there are very few sun spots there is a "maunder minimum"
Global dimming- The sun is blocked by the ash from a super volcano or and asteroid collision


How has climate change affected sea level and global temperatures?

The global average temp has risen 0.7C over the past 100 years.
- Will rise 2-3C this century
- Sea levels could rise anywhere between 32cm and 53cm


What are the predicted temperature rises in the Arctic region?

- Temps will rise 4-6C this century
This is double the global rise


What effects will climate change have on the natural systems in the Arctic region?

- Vegetation will shift northwards- ice + tundra will turn into coniferous forest- Will destablise food webs
- Thawing permafrost- Ice will melt causing rivers to drain (land absorbs water) and wetlands.
- Increasing fire and insects- destroy trees, therefore destroying habitat for lichens, mosses, birds etc
-More UV rays- less reflected by albido effect, will destroy sensitive ocean ecosystems i.e. phytoplankton
- Carbon cycle change- more tree take in more CO2 but thawing ice lets out methane
- Increased coastal erosion- no protection of ice


What effects will climate change have on animals in the Arctic region?

- Northward species shift- they will need to move northwards with their habitat
- Threat to marine species- Animals dependent on sea ice will decline, some may go extinct. E.g. polar bear, walruses, birds
- Threat to land species- Animals adapted to the arctic are at risk


What effects will climate change have on people in the Arctic region?

- Lack of animals for food
- Decline in freshwater fisheries- increase in marine fisheries
- Less access for land based transport- more boats
- Enhanced agriculture and forestry
- The arctic will be more accessible and vulnerable to exploitation for resources, e.g. oil, gas, fish


What effects of global warming will there be in Africa?

By 2050 temperature increase of 1.5-3C
-Less crops- flooding
- Possible agriculture GDP losses between 2 and 4%
- People living by the coast are likely to be affected by coastal flooding
- Changes in coastal environment (mangroves + coastal degradation) could reduce tourism and fishing
- 70% of subsistence farmers wont be able to feed themselves
- Semi-arid/arid lands in Africa will increase by 5-8%
- Flooding will cause an increase in water born diseases and malaria even in places where it wasn't before- Kenya
- 30% less rainfall in South Africa
- Large increase in food insecurity and water issues
- Droughts in some places and unhygienic flood water in others
- Cost of adaptation could be 10% of GDP


Why will the poorest in Africa suffer most due to climate change?

- 70% of Africans are subsistence farmers- nothing to eat or sell to buy food if crops don't grow
- The poorest can't buy food at the inflated prices
- The poorest can't pay for health care due to the increased spread of disease


How are people adapting on a local scale to global warming?

- Agenda 21- local councils have to implement sustainable strategies to improve the environment
-London plans to reduce CO2 emissions by 30% of 1990 levels by 2025.
- London will provide clean public transport- 8000 hybrid buses
- Green homes program- subsidised or free home insulation and energy efficient council houses
- BedZed


How are people adapting on a national scale to global warming?

UK- reduce CO2 by 60% by 2050
- Taxing polluting vehicles- Vehicle Excise Duty
- 20% of electricity from renewable resources by 2020


How are people adapting on a global scale to global warming?

Kyoto protocol 1997- international agreement to reduce GHG
- Countries have credits and must pollute less than that
- Amount of credits depends on development
- Can sell credits if you don't use them all
- USA didn't sign up + many countries don't reach targets
The Stern Review
- Review by Sir Nicholas Stern found that global warming is happening at an unsustainable rate
- Global action needed- new targets and schemes


Why is it hard to predict the impacts of global warming

- We do not know how much GHG will be polluted
- We don't know future population
- Development of LEDCs
- When will we run out of fossil fuels
- We don't know the roles of positive feedback mechanisms
- Technological advances?