What are the four religions with the most adherents in the world?
- Christianity (about 2 billion)
- Islam (about 1.2 billion)
- Hinduism (about 800 million)
- Buddhism (about 350 million)
How many Buddhists are there in the world?
about 350 million followers (6% of global population)
How many Christians are there currently in the world?
about 2 billion followers (32% of the world population)
How many Muslims are there currently in the world?
about 1.2 billion (19% of world population)
How many Hindus are there currently in the world?
about 800 million (13% of global population)
Who was the founder of Buddhism?
What religion did Siddhartha Gautama found?
Abraham is an important founding figure in which three organized religions?
When was Buddhism founded?
around 520 BCE
What major world religion was founded around 520 B.C.?
What are the most important texts in Islam?
- the Qur'an (the word of God as dictated to the Prophet Muhammad)
- the Hadith (the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad)
The Qur'an and the Hadith are important texts in which religion?
Who founded Islam?
the Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad is the founding prophet of which religion?
What is the profession of faith required to become a Muslim?
"There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet."
Adherents of which religion believe that "There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet?"
What does "Allah" mean?
"God" in Arabic
Who is Christianity's founding figure?
Which religion considers Jesus Christ to be the Son of God?
What are the main sects of Christianity?
- Roman Catholic Church
- Eastern Catholic Church (Armenian, Ethiopian, Greek, etc.)
- Protestantism (Baptist, Lutheran, Methodist, Pentacostal, Presbyterian, etc.)
- Eastern Orthodox Church (Greek, Russian, etc.)
- Anglican Church (Episcopalian, etc.)
What is the main text of Christianity?
the Bible, which is composed of the Old Testament (Jewish Torah) and the New Testament
The Old and New Testament are sacred texts in which religion?
Who is the spiritual leader of Roman Catholics and where does he reside?
the Pope, based in Vatican City
What major religious figure resides in the Vatican?
the Pope, leader of the Roman Catholic Church
What is the world's oldest organized religion?
Hinduism, which was codified around 1500 B.C.
What are other common names for Hinduism?
- Sanatana Dharma ("eternal religion")
- Vaidika Dharma ("religion of the Vedas")
Sanatana Dharma and Vaidika Dharma are alternative names for which religion?
What are the main sacred texts of Hinduism?
- the Vedas (the Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, and Atharvaveda)
- the Ramayana
- the Mahabharata
The Vedas, the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata are the sacred texts of which religion?
What are the "four aims" of Hinduism (also called the purusharthas?
For the pravritti, those who are in the world:
- dharma (righteousness in one's religious life)
- artha (success economically)
- kama (gratification of the senses)
For the nivritti, those who renounce the world:
- moksa (liberation from "samsara," the cycle of birth and rebirth)
What is Brahman in Hinduism?
the highest deity, realized in three persons:
- Brahma, the Creator
- Vishnu, (Krishna) the Preserver
- Shiva, the Destroyer
Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva are three manifestations of what figure in Hinduism?
What are the main sects in Hinduism?
- Vaishnavism (which considers Vishnu the ultimate deity)
- Shaivism (which considers Shiva the ultimate deity)
Shaivism and Vaishnavism are sects in which religion?
Which Hindu sect believes that Vishnu, the Preserver, is the ultimate deity?
Which Hindu sect believes that Shiva, the Destroyer, is the ultimate deity?
What are the main texts in Judaism?
- the Tanakh (consisting of the Torah, the Nevi'im, and the Ketuvim)
- the Talmud (consisting of the Mishnah and the Gemara)
The Tanakh and the Talmud are the main texts of what religion?
What are the five layers or worlds that Jains believe the universe consists of?
- the supreme abode
- the upper world
- the middle world
- the nether world
- the base
What religion believes that the universe is a series of five layers, or "worlds?"
What are the main kinds of deities in Shintoism?
- guardian gods of important locations
- gods of nature/objects
- gods of abstract concepts/important people (including all past and present emperors)
Which religion includes the worship of nature gods, guardians of certain places, emperors, and gods of abstract concepts?
Where do the majority of the world's Shinto believers live?
What are the main values of Confucianism?
Li - includes ritual, propriety, etiquette, etc.
Xiao - respect for one's parents
Ren - benevolence, kindness towards others
Zhong- civil loyalty
What religion's central tenets include Li, Xiao, Yi, Ren, Zhong?
What are some of the main sects of Buddhism?
Theravada - The oldest, most conservative school, primarily practiced in Sri Lanka and continental Southeast Asia; more of a philosophy; wisdom is emphasized as a goal and enlightenment requires great effort.
Mahayana - The largest school, followed primarily in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam; compassion is considered the most important goal and enlightenment can come from leading a normal life.
Vajrayana - Related to Mahayana Buddhism; followed in Tibet, Bhutan, Japan, Southwest China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, Russia, and Tibet; emphasizes ritual as an alternative to meditation.
Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajryana are all schools of thought in which religion?
What is the meaning of the concept of nirvana?
- Buddhist notion of freedom from human suffering due to desire, anger, etc., and from the cycle of birth and rebirth (samsara)
- Similar concepts are found in Hinduism and Jainism
Which religion pursues nirvana, the freedom from human suffering due to desire, anger, etc.?
What are theFour Noble Truths of Buddhism?
dukkha -suffering exists
samudaya- there is a cause for suffering: the desire to have and control
nirodha- there can be an end to suffering (nirvana)
magga:the necessity to follow the Eightfold Path to escape suffering
Which religion believes in the Four Noble Truths?
The way to achieve Nirvana and enlightenment:
- right understanding (of the Four Noble Truths and recognition of right and wrong)
- right thinking (following good intentions)
- right speech (honesty, no gossiping or cruel language)
- right conduct (acting rightly, no killing, stealing, or licentiousness)
- right livelihood (supporting oneself without corruption)
- right effort (promoting good thoughts and behavior)
- right mindfulness (becoming aware of one's body and mind)
- right concentration (meditation)
What religious text do Christianity and Judaism share?
The Tanakh, or Old Testament
What religions consider the Tanakh an important text?
Christianity and Judaism
What are the two main sects of Islam and how do they differ?
- Sunni Islam - consists of the vast majority of Muslims; holds that Abu Bakr was Muhammad's rightful successor
- Shi'a Islam - holds that Ali was Muhammad's rightful successor and that the Mahdi will bring about the Day of the Resurrection
Which religion believes in the following aims?
- Right Effort (promote good thoughts/behavior)
- Right Mindfulness (become aware of your body and mind)
- Right Concentration (meditation)
Which countries or regions practice predominantly Shi'a Islam?
Which sect of Islam is commonly practiced in Iran, Azerbaijan, Iraq, and Bahrain?
Which countries or regions practice predominantly Sunni Islam?
- Northern Africa
- the Middle East (excluding Iraq and Iran)
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
Which sect of Islam is commonly practiced in Northern Africa, most of the Middle East, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, India, and some parts of the Balkans?
What is the origin and meaning of the concept of dharma?
- means righteousness in one's religious life
economic success in the Hindu tradition
gratification of the senses in the Hindu tradition
What is moksa?
liberation from "samsara," the cycle of birth and rebirth, in the Hindu tradition
What is the world's youngest organized religion?
the Baha'i faith, an offshoot of Islam
When and where was Islam founded?
622 A.D. in Mecca, in what is now Saudi Arabia
What religion was founded in 622 A.D. in what is now Saudi Arabia?
When and where was Christianity founded?
around 30 A.D. in modern-day Israel
What religion was founded in 30 A.D. in what is now Israel?
What are some beliefs that distinguish Christianity from other world religions?
- that Jesus Christ is the Son of God
- that Jesus died and was resurrected
- that Jesus will return to Earth in the end of days
What is Roman Catholicism?
a sect of Christianity that
- believes in saints (especially Mary) as intermediaries between humans and God
- follows the Pope
- believes in the Eucharist as the literal transformation of the body and blood of Jesus
- believes that faith and good works are needed to achieve salvation
What is the Eastern Orthodox Church?
a sect of Christianity that
- is dominant inBulgaria, Belarus, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece, Romania, Russia, Serbia, and Ukraine
- allows married men to join the clergy
- venerates saints, especially Mary, and their icons
- believes that the Holy Scripture and the Holy Tradition hold the key to salvation
What is Protestantism?
a sect of Christianity that
- comprises hundreds of denominations that vary in many beliefs
- accepts only the Bible as an authority in religion
- believes salvation is achieved only through faith
- believes in a "priesthood" of all believers that allows everyone in the church to interpret scripture
What is Progressive Christianity?
a sect of Christianity that
- is politically liberal, loosely organized, and accepts all religions as being valid paths to salvation
- believes that being kind to others is more important that following a specific set of rules or dogma
What is the "promised land" in Judaism?
the land God promised in the Torah to Abraham and his descendants
What are the basic tenets of Sikhism?
- a single, bodyless God
- the 10 Gurus of the religion
- baptism by the 10th Guru
- samsara (the cycle of birth and rebirth in which being human signifies one is approaching the end of the cycle)
- equality under God
- the Reht Maryada (code of conduct)
What religion believesin the 10 Gurus and in baptism by the 10th Guru?
Where does the majority of the world's Sikhs live?
the state of Punjab in northwest India
Which religion's followers are mainly in the Indian state of Punjab?
Jews, Muslims, and Christians all consider which city to be holy?
Where do the majority of the world's current practitioners of Confucianism live?
China, but Confucian principles are also practiced in Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and Vietnam
Where, when, and by whom was Taoism ("The Way") founded?
Lao-Tse in China around 500 B.C.
What religion was founded by Lao-Tse in China around 500 B.C.?
Taoism ("The Way")
What are the three main branches of Judaism and how do they differ?
- Orthodox Judaism - The oldest, most conservative branch that believes the scripture to be divinely inspired and stresses the 13 principles of the Jewish faith.
- Reform Judaism - A much more liberal branch that follow ethical laws but not necessarily the stricter traditional laws as individuals are free to chose what to observe. Worship is modernized and women are allowed to be rabbis.
- Conservative Judaism - A moderate branch that follows Jewish law but believes that modern interpretation can be applied to it and to the scriptures. They reject the idea that the scripture was related directly from God.
What is Orthodox Judaism?
the oldest, most conservative branch that believes the scripture to be divinely inspired and stresses the 13 principles of the Jewish faith
What is Reform Judaism?
a liberal form of Judaism that follows ethical laws but not necessarily the stricter traditional laws, allows individuals to chose what traditions to observe, and allows women to become rabbis
What is Conservative Judaism?
a moderate branch of Judaism that follows Jewish law but believes that modern interpretation can be applied to it and rejects the idea that the scripture was related directly by God
What is the meaning of the concept of karma?
the total of one's good and bad deeds that determine into what kind of life a person will be reincarnated
What is the term for the total of one's good and bad deeds that determine the kind of life into which a person will be reincarnated?
What was the Great Schism?
the separation of the Christian church in 1054 into the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church due to a conflict between the Pope and the Patriarch of Constantinople
What was the Protestant Reformation?
the emergence and separation of various Protestant denominations from the Catholic Church that began in 1517 in Germany when Martin Luther wrote his Ninety-Five Theses (a manifesto on why reform was necessary)
What is the name given to the separation of the Christian church into the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church that occurred in 1054 due to a conflict between the Pope and the Patriarch of Constantinople?
the Great Schism
What is the name given to the emergence and separation of various Protestant denominations from the Catholic Church that began in 1517 in Germany when Martin Luther wrote his Ninety-Five Theses?
the Protestant Reformation
How many Jews are there in the world?
around 14 million (0.2% of the world's population)
What countries or regions are most Buddhists in?
- parts of Vietnam
What countries or regions are most Christians in?
- North America
- South America
- parts of Africa (South Africa, etc.)
- the Philippines
What countries or regions are most Muslims in?
- Northern Africa
- the Middle East
- parts of China (Xinjiang)
What countries or regions are most Hindus in?
- parts of Burma
What countries are most Jews in?
- the United States