Flashcards in WWI Deck (17):
Why was Russia involved?
- Rivalry between great powers in Europe = two cold war style defensive alliances (Entente + Alliance)
- Russia becomes allied with Britain
- Growth of Germany power was a threat to Russia
How big was Russia's army?
1.4m which grew to 4m
When was the peak of mobilisation?
Jan 1917 = 7m
How did mobilisation mask serious problems?
Officer class depleted because of the stem of exemption, elderly + incompetent (like the terror) = promotion depended on nepotism
What was Russia's birth rate and death rate in 1911?
Birth rate = 43 per 1000
Death rate = 27 per 1000
- sign of a backwards nation
How did the national incomes of Britain compare with Russia?
How did coal production in Britain compare to Russia?
292m tons compared to 36m
By WWI what made up Russia's economy?
58% agriculture + 28% industry
How were Russia's methods old fashioned?
- Little railways to move troops
- Did not code messages
By 1917 what was Russia's position in the war?
Retreated 500km and pushed out of Poland back into Russian soil
When did Nicolas take personal command of the army and why was this a mistake?
- personally responsible
- could not oversee gov
- Rasputin influence Tsarina = appoints corrupt and incompetent ministers
Why did the situation worsen in the winter of 1936?
- Temperature fell to -35
- Professional troops replaced by peasants
- Disobedience and mutiny were becoming rife
When did NII travel back to Petrograd and what happened?
1st March 1917:
Train was stopped as he was told to abdicate
What were the military impacts of the war?
- huge losses = estimated 10m dead, injured or captured
What were the economic impacts of the war?
- reduced foreign trade due to G/A blockade of the Dardanelles
- gov. revenue down 30%
- 4x prices
- food shortages due to depopulation of the countryside + low price paid by gov
What were the political impacts of the war?
- united opposition to the Tsar
- Duma = perfect forum for these groups, made focus on the revolution