XIX - Female Genital System and the Breast Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in XIX - Female Genital System and the Breast Deck (151):
1

Lesion of the female vulva characterized by thinning of the epidermis and disappearance of rete pegs, hydropic degeneration of basal cells, superficial hyperkeratosis, dermal fibrosis with scant perivascular, mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate. Occurs most commonly in postmenopausal women.

Lichen sclerosus(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 713

2

This disorder of the vulva is marked by epithelial thickening, expansion of the stratum granulosum, significant surface hyperkeratosis and pronounced leukocytic infiltrate. Appears clinically as an area of leukoplakia.

Lichen simplex chronicus(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 713

3

These are flat, moist, minimally elevated lesions that occur in secondary syphilis.

Condyloma lata(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 713

4

Lesions of the anogenital area which may be papillary and distinctly elevated or may be somewhat flat and rugose. Characteristic cellular morphology is the presence of cytoplasmic vacuolization with nuclear angular polymorphism and koilocytosis. Hallmark of HPV infection.

Condyloma acuminata(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 713

5

Red, scaly plaque, microscopically characterized by the spread of malignant cells within the epithelium, occasionally with invasion of underlying dermis. May have underlying carcinoma of a vulvar or perineal gland.

Paget disease of the Vulva(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 715

6

A soft polypoid mass, which is a rare form of primary vaginal cancer. Usually encountered in infants and children less than 5 y/o.

Sarcoma botryoides (embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma)(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 716

7

Most commonly develops in the transformation zone of the cervix. Produces a "barrel cervix" if the tumor encircles the cervix and invades the underlying stroma.

Invasive carcinoma of the cervix(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 719

8

Protruding polypoid masses which are inflammatory in origin, soft, yields to palpation, and have a smooth, glistening surface with underlying cystically dilated spaces filled with mucinous secretion.

Endocervical polyp(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 721

9

Refers to the growth of the basal layer of the endometrium down to the myometrium. Nests of endometrial stroma, glands or both are found in the myometrium, in between muscle bundles.

Adenomyosis(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 721

10

Characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma in a location outside the endomyometrium. Undergoes cyclic bleeding. Also called "chocolate cysts".

Endometriosis(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 722

11

These are sharply circumscribed, firm, gray-white masses of the uterus, with "whorled" cut surface.

Leiomyoma(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 721

12

Solitary tumors of the uterus which arise de novo from the mesenchymal cells of the myometrium. Characterized byvtche presence of tumor necrosis, cytologic atypia and mitotic activity.

Leiomyosarcomas(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 725

13

Type of endometrial carcinoma associated with estrogen excess and endometrial hyperplasia.

Endometroid carcinoma(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 727

14

Type of endometrial carcinoma which occurs in older women and is usually associated with endometrial atrophy.

Serous carcinoma(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 727

15

Small, fluid-filled cysts which originate from the unruptured graafian follicles or in follicles that have ruptured and immediately sealed.

Follicle and luteal cysts(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 728

16

Triad of oligomenorrhea, infertility and obesity in young women secondary to excessive production of estrogens and androgens.

Polycystic ovaries(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 728

17

Other name for polycystic ovary syndrome?

Stein-Leventhal syndrome(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 728

18

Two most important risk factors for development of ovarian cancer.

Nulliparity and family history(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 729

19

Mutation of this gene is associated in the development of both ovarian and breast cancers.

BRCA 1(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 729

20

Mutation of this gene is associated with the development of breast cancer only,

BRCA 2(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 729

21

Benign lesion of the ovary most commonly seen in women 30-40 years old. Most frequent of the ovarian tumors. Serosal covering is smooth and glistening. Characterized histologically by tall, columnar epithelium and the presence of Psammoma bodies.

Serous tumor of the ovary(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 730

22

Large, multilocular tumors of the ovaries, without psammoma bodies. Composed of mucin-producing epithelial cells.

Mucinous Tumors (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 731

23

Metastasis of mucinous tumor of the gastrointestinal tract to the ovaries is called?

Krukenberg tumor(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 731

24

A rare, solid, unilateral ovarian tumor consisting of an abundant stroma containing nests of transitional-like epithelium resembling that of the urinary tract.

Brenner Tumor (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 732

25

Unilateral ovarian tumor composed of sheets or cords of large cleared cells separated by scant fibrous strands. Stroma may contain lymphocytes and occasional granuloma. Usually occur on the 2nd-3rd decade of life.

Dysgerminoma(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 732

26

Unilateral ovarian tumor which occur during the 1st 3 decades of life. Characterized by small, hemorrhagic focus with syncitiothrophoblast and cytotrophoblast. Metastasize early.

Choriocarcinoma(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 732

27

Sex cord tumor seen most commonly in postmenopausal women. Lesions may be tiny or large, gray to yellow (with cystic spaces). Produce large amounts of estrogen. (+) Call-Exner bodies

Granulosa-thecal cell tumor(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 732

28

Sex cord tumor characterized by solid gray fibrous cells to yellow (lipid-laden) plump thecal cells. Most hormonally inactive.

Thecoma-fibroma tumor(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 732

29

Sex cord tumor seen as small, gray to yellow-brown, and solid lesions. May resemble development of testis with tubules, or cords and plump pink Sertoli cells. May be masculinizing or defeminizing.

Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 732

30

On transection, filled with sebaceous secretion and matted hair, bonw and cartilage, nests of bronchial or gastrointestinal epithelium, and other recognizable lines of development are also present.

Benign (Mature) Cystic Teratomas / Dermoid Cyst(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 733

31

Microscopically, the distinguishing feature is a variety of immature or barely recognizable areas of differentiation toward cartilage, bone, muscle, nerve, and other structures. Found early in life.

Immature Malignant Teratomas (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 733

32

Tumor of the ovary composed entirely of mature thyroid tissue. May hyperfunction and produce hyperthyroidism. Appear as small, solid, unilateral brown ovarian masses

Struma ovarii (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 733

33

A voluminous mass of swollen, sometimes cystically dilated, chorionic villi, appearing grossly as grapelike structures.

Hydatidiform Mole (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 735

34

This type of H. mole shows hydropic swelling of chorionic villi and virtual absence of vascularization of villi. No fetal parts seen.

Complete mole (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 736

35

This type of H. mole shows villous edema that involves only some of the villi and the trophoblastic proliferation is focal and slight, with characteristic irregular scalloped margin. Fetal parts/embryo may be seen.

Partial mole(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 736

36

These are complete moles that are more invasive locally but do not metastasize. Microscopically, the epithelium of the villi is marked by hyperplastic and atypical changes, with proliferation of both cuboidal and syncytial components.

Invasive Mole (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 736

37

Appear as very hemorrhagic, necrotic masses within the uterus. The tumor is purely epithelial, composed of anaplastic cuboidal cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast, chorionic villi are not formed. High propensity for metastasis.

Choriocarcinoma (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 737

38

A cystic dilation of an obstructed duct that arises during lactation.

Galactocele (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 739

39

Multifocal, bilateral blue-brown cysts ("blue dome cysts") of the breast, measuring 1-5 cm diameter, filled with serous turbid fluid. Occurs normally in the menstrual cycle.

Simple fibrocystic change of the breast(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 739

40

Term used to describe hyperplasia that cytologically resemble lobular carcinoma in situ, but the cells do not fill or distend more than 50% of the acini within a lobule.

Atypical lobular hyperplasia (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 739

41

The lumen of the ducts, ductules, or lobules of the breast is filled with a heterogeneous population of cells of different morphologies. Irregular slit-like fenestrations are prominent at the periphery.

Epithelial Hyperplasia (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 739

42

These lesions are characterized by proliferation of lining epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells in small ducts and ductules, yielding masses of small gland patterns within a fibrous stroma. The acini are arranged in a swirling pattern, and the outer border is usually well circumscribed.

Sclerosing Adenosis (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 741

43

A nonbacterial chronic inflammation of the breast associated with inspissation of breast secretions in the main excretory ducts.

Mammary duct ectasia (periductal or plasma cell mastitis) (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 742

44

The lesion is small, often tender, rarely more than 2 cm in diameter, and sharply localized, with a central focus of necrotic fat cells surrounded by neutrophils and lipid-filled macrophages. Caused by some antecedent trauma to the breast.

Traumatic fat necrosis (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 742

45

The most common benign neoplasm of the female breast.

Fibroadenoma(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 742

46

A discrete, usually solitary, freely movable nodule, 1 to 10 cm in diameter, easily "shelled out" lesion of the breast. Histologically there is a loose fibroblastic stroma containing ductlike, spaces lined by a layer of epithelium that are regular and have a well-defined, intact basement membrane.

Fibroadenoma (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 742

47

Small lobulated and cystic lesion of the breast that may grow rapidly. Exhibit "leaflike" clefts and slits on gross section.

Phyllodes Tumor (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 743

48

A neoplastic papillary growth within a duct, usually solitary and less than 1 cm in diameter, consisting of delicate, branching growths within a dilated duct or cyst.

Intraductal Papilloma (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 743

49

A type of noninvasive carcinoma of the breast that tends to fill, distort, and unfold involved lobules and thus appears to involve ductlike spaces.

Ductal Carcinoma in Situ(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 745

50

A type of noninvasive carcinoma of the breast expands but does not alter the underlying lobular architecture. cells are monomorphic with bland, round nuclei and occur in loosely cohesive clusters in ducts and lobules. Tend to be bilateral, and increases risk for development of breast CA.

Lobar Carcinoma in Situ(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 746

51

Caused by the extension of DCIS up to the lactiferous ducts and into the contiguous skin of the nipple.

Paget disease of the nipple (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 746

52

This type of cancer produces a desmoplastic response, replacing normal breast fat and forms a hard, palpable mass. Advanced cancers may cause dimpling of the skin, retraction of the nipple, or fixation to the chest wall.

Invasive ductal carcinoma (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 747

53

Breast cancer defined by the clinical presentation of an enlarged, swollen, erythematous breast, usually without a palpable mass. The blockage of numerous dermal lymphatic spaces by carcinoma results in the clinical appearance (e.g peau d' orange)

Inflammatory carcinoma (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 747

54

Breast cancer which consists of cells morphologically identical to the cells of LCIS. Occasionally they surround cancerous or normal-appearing acini or ducts, creating a so-called "bull's-eye pattern."

Invasive lobular carcinoma (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 747

55

A rare subtype of carcinoma consisting of sheets of large anaplastic cells with pushing, well-circumscribed borders, with a pronounced lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate.

Medullary carcinoma (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 747

56

A rare subtype of carcinoma which appear grossly as a soft and gelatinous mass which abundant quantities of extracellular mucin that dissects into the surrounding stroma.

Colloid (mucinous) carcinoma (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 747

57

Usually present as irregular mammographic densities. Microscopically, the carcinomas consist of well-formed tubules with low-grade nuclei. Lymph node metastases are rare, and prognosis is excellent.

Tubular carcinomas (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 747

58

Grossly, appears as a button-like, subareolar swelling. in bilateral breasts of males.

Gynecomastia (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 750

59

Large, multilocular tumors of the ovaries, without psammoma bodies. Composed of mucin-producing epithelial cells.

Mucinous Tumors (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 731

60

Metastasis of mucinous tumor of the gastrointestinal tract to the ovaries is called?

Krukenberg tumor(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 731

61

A rare, solid, unilateral ovarian tumor consisting of an abundant stroma containing nests of transitional-like epithelium resembling that of the urinary tract.

Brenner Tumor (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 732

62

Unilateral ovarian tumor composed of sheets or cords of large cleared cells separated by scant fibrous strands. Stroma may contain lymphocytes and occasional granuloma. Usually occur on the 2nd-3rd decade of life.

Dysgerminoma(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 732

63

Unilateral ovarian tumor which occur during the 1st 3 decades of life. Characterized by small, hemorrhagic focus with syncitiothrophoblast and cytotrophoblast. Metastasize early.

Choriocarcinoma(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 732

64

Sex cord tumor seen most commonly in postmenopausal women. Lesions may be tiny or large, gray to yellow (with cystic spaces). Produce large amounts of estrogen. (+) Call-Exner bodies

Granulosa-thecal cell tumor(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 732

65

Sex cord tumor characterized by solid gray fibrous cells to yellow (lipid-laden) plump thecal cells. Most hormonally inactive.

Thecoma-fibroma tumor(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 732

66

Sex cord tumor seen as small, gray to yellow-brown, and solid lesions. May resemble development of testis with tubules, or cords and plump pink Sertoli cells. May be masculinizing or defeminizing.

Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 732

67

On transection, filled with sebaceous secretion and matted hair, bonw and cartilage, nests of bronchial or gastrointestinal epithelium, and other recognizable lines of development are also present.

Benign (Mature) Cystic Teratomas / Dermoid Cyst(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 733

68

Microscopically, the distinguishing feature is a variety of immature or barely recognizable areas of differentiation toward cartilage, bone, muscle, nerve, and other structures. Found early in life.

Immature Malignant Teratomas (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 733

69

Tumor of the ovary composed entirely of mature thyroid tissue. May hyperfunction and produce hyperthyroidism. Appear as small, solid, unilateral brown ovarian masses

Struma ovarii (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 733

70

A voluminous mass of swollen, sometimes cystically dilated, chorionic villi, appearing grossly as grapelike structures.

Hydatidiform Mole (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 735

71

This type of H. mole shows hydropic swelling of chorionic villi and virtual absence of vascularization of villi. No fetal parts seen.

Complete mole (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 736

72

This type of H. mole shows villous edema that involves only some of the villi and the trophoblastic proliferation is focal and slight, with characteristic irregular scalloped margin. Fetal parts/embryo may be seen.

Partial mole(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 736

73

These are complete moles that are more invasive locally but do not metastasize. Microscopically, the epithelium of the villi is marked by hyperplastic and atypical changes, with proliferation of both cuboidal and syncytial components.

Invasive Mole (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 736

74

Appear as very hemorrhagic, necrotic masses within the uterus. The tumor is purely epithelial, composed of anaplastic cuboidal cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast, chorionic villi are not formed. High propensity for metastasis.

Choriocarcinoma (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 737

75

A cystic dilation of an obstructed duct that arises during lactation.

Galactocele (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 739

76

Multifocal, bilateral blue-brown cysts ("blue dome cysts") of the breast, measuring 1-5 cm diameter, filled with serous turbid fluid. Occurs normally in the menstrual cycle.

Simple fibrocystic change of the breast(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 739

77

Term used to describe hyperplasia that cytologically resemble lobular carcinoma in situ, but the cells do not fill or distend more than 50% of the acini within a lobule.

Atypical lobular hyperplasia (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 739

78

The lumen of the ducts, ductules, or lobules of the breast is filled with a heterogeneous population of cells of different morphologies. Irregular slit-like fenestrations are prominent at the periphery.

Epithelial Hyperplasia (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 739

79

These lesions are characterized by proliferation of lining epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells in small ducts and ductules, yielding masses of small gland patterns within a fibrous stroma. The acini are arranged in a swirling pattern, and the outer border is usually well circumscribed.

Sclerosing Adenosis (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 741

80

A nonbacterial chronic inflammation of the breast associated with inspissation of breast secretions in the main excretory ducts.

Mammary duct ectasia (periductal or plasma cell mastitis) (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 742

81

The lesion is small, often tender, rarely more than 2 cm in diameter, and sharply localized, with a central focus of necrotic fat cells surrounded by neutrophils and lipid-filled macrophages. Caused by some antecedent trauma to the breast.

Traumatic fat necrosis (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 742

82

The most common benign neoplasm of the female breast.

Fibroadenoma(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 742

83

A discrete, usually solitary, freely movable nodule, 1 to 10 cm in diameter, easily "shelled out" lesion of the breast. Histologically there is a loose fibroblastic stroma containing ductlike, spaces lined by a layer of epithelium that are regular and have a well-defined, intact basement membrane.

Fibroadenoma (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 742

84

Small lobulated and cystic lesion of the breast that may grow rapidly. Exhibit "leaflike" clefts and slits on gross section.

Phyllodes Tumor (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 743

85

A neoplastic papillary growth within a duct, usually solitary and less than 1 cm in diameter, consisting of delicate, branching growths within a dilated duct or cyst.

Intraductal Papilloma (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 743

86

A type of noninvasive carcinoma of the breast that tends to fill, distort, and unfold involved lobules and thus appears to involve ductlike spaces.

Ductal Carcinoma in Situ(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 745

87

A type of noninvasive carcinoma of the breast expands but does not alter the underlying lobular architecture. cells are monomorphic with bland, round nuclei and occur in loosely cohesive clusters in ducts and lobules. Tend to be bilateral, and increases risk for development of breast CA.

Lobar Carcinoma in Situ(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 746

88

Caused by the extension of DCIS up to the lactiferous ducts and into the contiguous skin of the nipple.

Paget disease of the nipple (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 746

89

This type of cancer produces a desmoplastic response, replacing normal breast fat and forms a hard, palpable mass. Advanced cancers may cause dimpling of the skin, retraction of the nipple, or fixation to the chest wall.

Invasive ductal carcinoma (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 747

90

Breast cancer defined by the clinical presentation of an enlarged, swollen, erythematous breast, usually without a palpable mass. The blockage of numerous dermal lymphatic spaces by carcinoma results in the clinical appearance (e.g peau d' orange)

Inflammatory carcinoma (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 747

91

Breast cancer which consists of cells morphologically identical to the cells of LCIS. Occasionally they surround cancerous or normal-appearing acini or ducts, creating a so-called "bull's-eye pattern."

Invasive lobular carcinoma (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 747

92

A rare subtype of carcinoma consisting of sheets of large anaplastic cells with pushing, well-circumscribed borders, with a pronounced lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate.

Medullary carcinoma (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 747

93

A rare subtype of carcinoma which appear grossly as a soft and gelatinous mass which abundant quantities of extracellular mucin that dissects into the surrounding stroma.

Colloid (mucinous) carcinoma (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 747

94

Usually present as irregular mammographic densities. Microscopically, the carcinomas consist of well-formed tubules with low-grade nuclei. Lymph node metastases are rare, and prognosis is excellent.

Tubular carcinomas (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 747

95

Grossly, appears as a button-like, subareolar swelling. in bilateral breasts of males.

Gynecomastia (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 750

96

Morphology: large macrophages with granular PAS positive cytoplasm and several dense, round Michaelis Gutmann bodies.

Malacoplakia (TOPNOTCH)

97

In gonococcal infection of the female reproductive system, inflammatory changes will appear about how many days after the inoculation of the organism?

2-7 days (TOPNOTCH)

98

These cells are distinguised by a clear separation "halo" from the surrounding epithelial cells and a finely granular cytoplasm containing mucopolysaccharide that stains with PAS, Alcian Blue, and Mucicarmine

Paget cells (TOPNOTCH)

99

What is the probable precursor of vaginal adenocarcinoma?

Vaginal adenosis (TOPNOTCH)

100

What do you call the glandlike structures filled with an acidophilic material similar to immature follicles that are seen in Granulosa Theca Cell tumors?

Call Exner bodies (TOPNOTCH)

101

Presence of these structures characterize serous tumors of the ovaries

Psammoma bodies (TOPNOTCH)

102

These tumors are distinguished from serous and mucinous tumors of the ovaries by the presence of tubular glands that resemble the endometrium

Endometriod tumor (TOPNOTCH)

103

Morphology: whorled pattern of smooth muscle bundles and well differentiated spindle shaped smooth muscle cells

Leiomyoma (TOPNOTCH)

104

A key factor in the development of endometrial hyperplasia and related cancers is the inactivation of what tumor suppressor gene?

PTEN (TOPNOTCH)

105

What is the most common location of vaginal adenocarcinoma?

Anterior wall of the upper third of Vagina (TOPNOTCH)

106

This is a condition in which glandular columnar epithelium of mullerian type either appears beneath the squamous epithelium or replaces it

Vaginal Adenosis (TOPNOTCH)

107

What are the 4 cardinal histologic features of Lichen Sclerosus of the Vulva or Chronic atrophic vulvitis?

Atrophy of the epidermis with disappearance, of the rete pegs, hydrophic degeneration of the basal cells, replacement of the underlying dermis by dense collagenous fibrous tissue, and monoclonal band like lymphocytic infiltrate (TOPNOTCH)

108

Morphology: acanthosis of the vulvar squamous epithelium frequently with hyperkeratosis

Lichen SImplex Chronicles (TOPNOTCH)

109

Morphology: presence of large tumor cells lying singly or in small lusters within the epidermis and its appendages

Extra mammary Paget Disease (TOPNOTCH)

110

Morphology: tumor cells resemble tennis racket with small protrusions of cytoplasms from one end

Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma (TOPNOTCH)

111

Clustering of tumor cells in a so called "Cambium Layer" is seen in what type of rhabdomyosarcoma?

Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma (TOPNOTCH)

112

On histological examination of the cervix, epithelial spongiosis is associated with what type of infection?

T. vaginal infection (TOPNOTCH)

113

On histological examination of the cervix, epithelial ulcers with intranuclear inclusions within the epithelial cells and lymphocytic infiltration is associated with what type of infection?

HSV (TOPNOTCH)

114

Morphology: these are composed of dense fibrous stroma covered with endocervical columnar epithelium

Endocervical polyp (TOPNOTCH)

115

What is considered the most important agent in cervical oncogenesis?

HPV (TOPNOTCH)

116

Koilocytic atypia is considered what type of CIN lesion?

CIN I (TOPNOTCH)

117

What is the most common pattern seen in invasive cervical carcinoma?

Fungating (TOPNOTCH)

118

On histological examination of the endometrium, what is the earliest morphological evidence of ovulation?

Basal vacuolation (TOPNOTCH)

119

Morphology: ectopic endometrial glands and stroma with numerous macrophages containing hemosiderin

Endometriosis (TOPNOTCH)

120

Morphology: hydrophic swelling of most chorionic villi and virtual absence or inadequate development of vascularization of villi

Complete mole (TOPNOTCH)

121

The combination of ovarian tumor, hydrothorax, and ascites is designated as

Meigs Syndrome (TOPNOTCH)

122

What type of ovarian cancer is best considered as the counterpart of the seminoma of the testes?

Dysgerminoma (TOPNOTCH)

123

About 1% of the dermoids undergo malignant transformation of any one of the component elements present, but most commonly, they differentiate into what type of carcinoma?

Squamous Cell Carcinoma (TOPNOTCH)

124

Morphology: epithelial component consists of nests of transitional cells resembling the lining of the urinary bladder

Brenner Tumor (TOPNOTCH)

125

Morphology: characterized by a lining of tall columnar epithelial cells with apical mucin and the absence of cilia, resembling cervical or intestinal epithelium

Mucinous tumors (TOPNOTCH)

126

Morphology: lined by a rim of bright yellow luteal tissue containing luteinized granulosa cells

Luteal cyst (TOPNOTCH)

127

Morphology: characterized chiefly by dilations of ducts, inspissation of breast secretions, and marked periductal and interstitial chronic granulomatous reaction

Mammary Duct Ectasia (TOPNOTCH)

128

What are the 3 principal patterns of morphologic changes seen in Fibrocystic Changes of the breast?

1. Cyst formation with apocrine metaplasia2. Fibrosis3. Adenosis (TOPNOTCH)

129

Morphology: "leaflike" architecture

Phyllodes Tumor (TOPNOTCH)

130

Morphology: proliferation of intralobular stroma surrounding and often pushing and distorting the associated epithelium. The border is sharply delimited from the surrounding tissue

Fibroadenoma (TOPNOTCH)

131

What is the most important prognostic factor useful as a predictive factor for the response of therapy in patients with breast cancer?

Presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors (TOPNOTCH)

132

In breast cancer, what is the most important prognostic factor for invasive carcinoma in the absence of distant metastases?

Lymph node metastases (TOPNOTCH)

133

Morphology: tumor cells are prsent as small clusters within large pools of mucin

Mucinous colloid carcinoma (TOPNOTCH)

134

Morphology: characterized by solid syncytium like sheets occupying 75% of the tumor , prominent lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and a non inflitrative border

Medullary carcinoma of the breast (TOPNOTCH)

135

The histologic hallmark of this tumor is the pattern of single infiltrating tumor cells, often only one cell in width, or in loose clusters or sheets

Invasive lobular carcinoma (TOPNOTCH)

136

This is a rare manifestation of breast cancer and presents as a unilateral erythematous eruption with a scale crust

Paget disease (TOPNOTCH)

137

These are stellate lesions characterized by a central nidus of entrapped glands in a hyalinized stroma

Complex Sclerosing Lesion or Radial Scar (TOPNOTCH)

138

Morphology: composed of multiple branching fibrovascular cores, each having a connective tissue axis lined by luminal and myoepithelial cells

Papillomas (TOPNOTCH)

139

What is the most common clinical presentation of breast disease

Pain (TOPNOTCH)

140

The principal mammographic signs of breast carcinoma

densities and calfications (TOPNOTCH)

141

Morphology: the main histologic feature is keratinizing squamous epithelium extending to an abnormal depth into the orifices of the nipple ducts

Periductal mastitis (TOPNOTCH)

142

Mammographic appearance: Large lobulated "popcorn" calcifications

Fibroadenoma (TOPNOTCH)

143

Morphology: characterized by solid sheets of pleomorphic cells with high-grade nuclei and central necrosis detected mamographically as clusters or linear and branching microcalcifications

Comedocarcinoma (TOPNOTCH)

144

Morphology: Terminal ducts (without lobule formation) are lined by a multilayered epithelium with small papillary tufts and surrounding periductal hyalinization and fibrosis.

Gynecomastia (TOPNOTCH)

145

Morphology: terminal duct lobular unit is enlarged, and the acini are compressed and distorted within the lumens. Calcifications are often present within the lumens.

Sclerosing adenosis(TOPNOTCH)

146

Morphology: central fibrovascular core extends from the wall of a duct. The papillae arborize within the lumen and are lined by myoepithelial and luminal cells

Intraductal papilloma(TOPNOTCH)

147

Cellular proliferation resembling ductal carcinoma in situ or lobular carcinoma in situ but lacking sufficient qualitative or quantitative features for a diagnosis of carcinoma in situ

Atypical hyperplasia(TOPNOTCH)

148

Refers to a proliferation of cells identical to those of LCIS but the cells do not fill or distend more than 50% of the acini within a lobule.

Atypical Lobular hyperplasia(TOPNOTCH)

149

Recognized by its histologic resemblance to ductal carcinoma in situ, including a monomorphic cell population, regular cell placement, and round lumina. However, the lesions are characteristically limited in extend, and the cells are not completely monomorphic in type or they fail to completely fill ductal spaces

Atypical hyperplasia(TOPNOTCH)

150

What are the two major risk factors for breast carcinoma?

Hormonal and Genetics/family history(TOPNOTCH)

151

This is a subtype of DCIS which is recognized by bulbous protrusions without a fibrovascular core, often forming complex intraductal patents.

Micropapillary DCIS(TOPNOTCH)