XV - The Oral Cavity and the GI Tract Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in XV - The Oral Cavity and the GI Tract Deck (141):
1

Small, painful, rounded superficial erosions of the mouth, covered with a gray-white exudate and having an erythematous rim.

Aphthous ulcers (canker sores)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 580

2

Extremely common infection caused by herpes simplex virus type 1.

Herpetic stomatitis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 580

3

Test used to identify HSV infection.

Tzanck test(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 580

4

Glassy, intranuclear acidophilic inclusion bodies.

Herpes simplex virus(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 580

5

Adherent white, curd-like, circumscribed plaque within the oral cavity. The pseudomembrane can be scraped off revealing an underlying granular erythematous inflammatory base.

Oral candidiasis /"thrush"(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 581

6

An oral lesion seen in patients with HIV. White confluen patches with "hairy" or corrugated surface with marked epithelial thickening.

Hairy leukoplakia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 581

7

Hairy leukoplakia is caused by what infectious agent?

Epstein-Barr virus(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 581

8

A whitish, well-defined mucosal patch or plaque caused by epidermal thickening or hyperkeratosis, commonly seen in the vermillion border of the lower lip, buccal mucosa, hard and soft palates.

Leukoplakia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 581

9

Oral lesion showing a corrugated surface caused by excessive hyperkeratosis. Recurring and spreads insiduously, resulting in a warty-type lesion.

Verrucous leukoplakia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 582

10

Red, velvety, granular, circumscribed lesions of the mouth with poorly defined, irregular boundaries. High malignant transformation rate.

Erythroplakia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 582

11

Most frequent site of oral cavity carcinomas.

Vermillion border of the lateral margins of the lower lip(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 582

12

Pearly white to gray, circumscribed thickenings of the oral mucosa, which grows in exophytic pattern to produce a visible and palpable nodular, eventually fungating lesions.

Oral cavity carcinoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 583

13

Most common lesion of the salivary glands resulting from blockage or rupture of a salivary gland duct.

Mucocele(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 583

14

Inflammation of the salivary glands.

Sialadenitis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 583

15

Salivary and lacrimal gland inflammatory enlargement presenting as painless lesions, and dry mouth. Can be caused by sarcoidosis, leukemia, and lymphoma.

Mikulicz syndrome(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 583

16

Incomplete relaxation of lower esophageal sphincter in response to swallowing.

Achalasia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 585

17

Destruction of the myenteric plexus of the esophagus, duodenum, colon and ureter caused by a flagellate protozoa.

Chagas disease(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 585

18

Causative agent for Chagas disease.

Trypanosoma cruzi(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 585

19

Adult with progressive dysphagia to solids and eventually to all foods, caused by a narrowing of the lower esophagus, usually as a result of chronic inflammatory disease.

Stenosis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 585

20

A congenital defect which causes the esophagus to end in a blind-ended pouch.

Esophageal atresia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 585

21

Most common type of esophageal atresia.

Esophageal atresia with distal tracheoesophageal fistula(Type C)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 585

22

Thin membranes of normal esophageal tissue consisting of mucosa and submucosa that can partially obstruct the esophagus.

Esophageal web(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 585

23

Congenital esophageal webs commonly appear in which segment of the esophagus?

Middle and inferior third of the esophagus(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 585

24

A diverticulum of the mucosa of the pharynx just above the cricopharyngeal muscle.

Zenker's diverticulum(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 586

25

A triangular area in the pharyngeal wall where a Zenker's diverticulum may develop.

Killian's triangle(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 586

26

Protrusion of the stomach above the diaphragm, creating a bell-shaped dilation, bounded below by the diaphragmatic narrowing.

Sliding hernia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 586

27

Hernia wherein a portion of the stomach, usually along the greater curvature, enters the thorax through the widened space between the muscular crura.

Paraesophgeal (rolling) hernia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 586

28

Longitudinal tears along the gastroesophageal junction seen in chronic alcoholics after a bout of retching or vomiting.

Mallory-Weiss tears(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 586

29

Tortuous dilated veins lying within the submucosa of the distal esophagus and proximal stomach due to increased portal pressure, usually due to cirrhosis. May cause massive hemorrhage if ruptured.

Esophageal varices(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 587

30

Presence of eosinophils in the epithelial layer, basal zone hyperplasia and elongation of lamina propria papillae are histologic findings in this condition.

Reflux esophagitis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 588

31

Defined as the replacement of the normal distal stratified squamous mucosa by metaplastic columnar epithelium containing goblet cells. A complication of long-standing GERD.

Barrett esophagus(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 591

32

Esophageal lesion at risk of developing adenocarcinoma:Reflux esophagitis or Barrett esophagus?

Barrett esophagus(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 589

33

Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus commonly occur at which segment of the esophagus?

Proximal 2/3 of the esophagusAdenocarcinoma- distal 1/3(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 591

34

Most common symptoms of esophageal cancer.

Dysphagia and odynophagia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 591

35

Mucin-producing glandular tumors of the distal esophagus showing intestinal-type features.

Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 591

36

Presence of chronic inflammatory changes in the mucosa of the stomach eventually leading to mucosal atrophy and epithelial metaplasia.

Chronic gastritis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 592

37

Most important etiologic association with chronic gastritis. A non-invasive, non-spore forming S-shaped gram negative rod.

Helicobacter pylori(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 592

38

Gastritis resulting from production of autoantibodies to the gastric gland parietal cells, leading to gland destruction and mucosal atrophy with loss of acid and intrinsic factor.

Autoimmmune gastritis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 592

39

Refers to the replacement of gastric epithelium with columnar and goblet cells of intestinal variety.

Intestinal metaplasia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 592

40

A acute mucosal inflammatory process of the stomach, marked by mucosal edema and inflammatory infiltrate of neutrophils and chronic inflammatory cells. Regenerative replication of cells in the gastric pit is prominent.

Acute gastritis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 593

41

One of the major causes of hematemesis, especially in alcoholics.

Acute gastritis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 593

42

A breach in the mucosa that extends through the muscularis mucosae into the submucosa or deeper.

Ulcers(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 593

43

Breach in the epithelium of the gastrointestinal mucosa only.

Erosions(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 593

44

Chronic, solitary lesions that occur in any portion of the GIT exposed to the aggressive action of acidic peptic juices.

Peptic ulcers(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 594

45

Major cause of peptic ulcer disease in patients without H. pylori disease.

NSAID use(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 595

46

Histologic layers in a chronic, nonperforated, open ulcer.

From luminal surface:NecrosisInflammationGranulation tissueScar(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 596

47

Chief complication of peptic ulcer.

Bleeding(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 596

48

Increases risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma:Acute gastritis vs. peptic ulcer disease?

Acute gastritisPUD is NOT a premalignant lesion(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 596

49

Acute gastric ulceration which occurs in the presence of extensive burns.

Curling ulcer(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 596

50

Acute gastric ulceration which occurs in the presence of injury to the CNS.

Cushing ulcer(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 596

51

Composed of hyperplastic gastric mucosal epithelium and an inflamed edematous stroma. A mass lesion arising from the mucosa.

Gastric polyp(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 597

52

Most common site of gastric carcinoma within the stomach.

Pylorus and antrum (50-60%), along the lesser curvatureCardia (25%)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 598

53

What are the two most important factors in the genesis of colonic diverticula?

Focal weakness in the colonic wall and increased intraluminal pressure(TOPNOTCH)

54

Morphologic feature of gastric carcinomas with greatest impact on prognosis.

Depth of invasion(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 599

55

Gastric carcinoma confined to the mucosa and submucosa, regardless of the presence or absence of perigastric LN metastasis.

Early gastric carcinoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 599

56

Gastric carcinoma which has extended below the submucosa into the muscular wall.

Advanced gastric carcinoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 599

57

Three macroscopic growth patterns of gastric carcinoma.

Exophytic - protrusion of mass into lumenFlat or depressed - no obvious tumor mass within the mucosaExcavated - a shallow or deeply eroded crater(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 599

58

Rigid and thickened stomach, secondary to extensive malignant infiltration.

Linitis plastica(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 599

59

Histologic classification of gastric carcinoma composed of malignant cells forming neoplastic intestinal glands resembling colonic adenocarcinoma. Associated with H. pylori induced chronic gastritis.

Intestinal variant(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 599

60

Histologic classification of gastric carcinoma composed of gastric-type mucous cells that do not form glands but permeate the mucosa and wall as "signet-ring" cells in an infiltrative growth pattern.

Diffuse variant(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 599

61

A malignancy in the ovary that metastasized from a gastric adenocarcinoma.

Krukenberg tumor(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 599

62

Complete failure of development of the intestinal lumen.

Atresia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 600

63

Narrowing of the intestinal lumen with incomplete obstruction.

Stenosis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 600

64

Most common intestinal anomaly which results from the failure of involution of the omphalomesenteric duct, leaving a persistent blind-ended tubular protrusion as long as 5-6cm.

Meckel diverticulum(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 600

65

A congenital defect of the periumbillical abdominal musculature that creates a membranous sac, into which intestines herniate.

Omphalocoele(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 600

66

Extrusion of the intestines caused by lack of formation of a portion of the abdominal wall.

Gastroschisis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 600

67

Condition that prevents the intestines from assuming their normal intra-abdominal positions.

Malrotation(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 600

68

Critical lesion in the development of Hirschprung disease.

Lack of ganglion cells in the muscle wall and submuco lf the affected segment.(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 601

69

Ischemic lesion of the intestines which extends only up to the muscularis mucosae.

Mucosal infarction(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 601

70

Ischemic lesion of the intestines involving the mucosa and submucosa, sparing the muscular wall.

Mural infarction(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 601

71

Ischemic lesion of the intestines involving all of the visceral layers.

Transmural infarct(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 601

72

Most common cause of transmural infarction of the intestines.

Acute occlusion of a major mesenteri artery(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 602

73

Development of sudden abdominal pain out of proportion to the physical signs. Sometimes accomplanied by bloody diarrhea. May progress to shock and vascular collapse within hours.

Ischemic bowel injury(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 602

74

A weakness or defect in the wall of the peritoneal cavity, which permits protrusion of a pouch-like serosa lined sac of peritoneum.

Hernia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 603

75

A blind pouch that communicates with the lumen of the gut. Histologically describes as small, flask-like or spherical outpouchings, usually 0.5 to 1 cm diameter.

Diverticula(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 602

76

Telescoping of a proximal segment of a bowel into the immediately distal segment

Intussusception(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 604

77

Refers to twisting of a loop of bowel or other structure about its base of attachment, constricting venous outflow and sometimes the arterial supply.

Volvulus(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 604

78

Characterized by transmural inflammation of the bowel, associated with noncaseating granulomas and fistula formation. Intestinal walls are rubbery and thick. (+) skip lesions, creeping fat mesentery

Chron's disease(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 613

79

An ulceroinflammatory disease of the colon which is limited to the mucosa and submucosa. No granulomas, no skip lesions. High risk of carcinoma development.

Ulcerative colitis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 614

80

Small, nipple-like, hemispherical, smooth protrusions of the intestinal mucosa. May occur singly or multiple.contains abundant crypts luned by well-differentiated goblet or epithelial cells separated by scant lamina propria.

Hyperplastic polyps(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 617

81

Hamartomatous proliferations mainly of lamina propria, enclosing widely spaced, dilated cystic glands. Occur most frequently in children younger than 5 years old.

Juvenile polyps(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 618

82

Most common type of intestinal adenoma, which are tubular glands with slender stalks and raspberry-like heads composed pf neoplastic epithelium forming branching glands lined by tall, hyperchromatic cells.

Tubular adenomas(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 618

83

Larger, more ominous intestinal epithelial polyp. Tends to occur in older persons at the rectum or rectosigmoid. Sessile, velvety and cauliflower-like mass projecting 1-3cm above the surrounding mucosa. Frondlike villiform extensions covered by dysplastic columnar epithelium.

Villous adenomas(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 618

84

Composed of broad mix of tubular and villous areas, an intermediated between tubular and villous lesions.

Tubulovillous adenomas(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 618

85

Uncommon autosomal dominant disorder with propensity for malignant transformation. Patients with this disease typically develop 500 to 2500 colonic adenomas that carpet the mucosal surface.

Familial adenomatous polyposis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 619

86

Uncommon hamartomatous polyps associated with melanotic mucosal and cutaneous pigmentation. Caused by germ-line mutations in LKB1 gene.

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 619

87

Polypoid, exophytic masses that extend along the wall of capacious cecum and ascending colon. Symptoms of fatigue, weakness and iron deficiency anemia.

Right sided colorectal carcinoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 623

88

Annular, encircling lesions, "napkin-ring" constrictions of the bowel and narrowing of the lumen. Symptoms pf occult bleeding, changes in bowel habit or crampy left lower quadrant discomfort.

Left-sided colorectal carcinoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 623

89

Tumor of the small intestines, showing spindle cells with elongated nuclei with fine chromatin and eosinophilic fibrillar cytoplasm. (+) c-KIT gene mutation

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 628

90

Most common site of carcinoid tumors.

Appendix(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 627

91

Tumors arising from endocrine cells along the GIT. Solid, yellow-tan appearance on transection. Neoplastic cells have a scant, pink granular cytoplasm and a round-to-oval stippled nucleus.

Carcinoid tumors(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 627

92

What is the most common ectopic tissue rests seen in the esophagus?

Ectopic Gastric Mucosa seen in the upper third of the esophagus (TOPNOTCH)

93

What is the most common location of Mallory Weiss Tears?

Esophagogastric junction or in the proximal gastric (TOPNOTCH)

94

Definitive diagnosis of Barret Esophagus is made when what type of cells is seen in the columnar mucosa?

Intestinal Goblet Cells(TOPNOTCH)

95

What type of esophagitis presents with punched out linear ulcers with nuclear inclusions seen in degenerating epithelial cells?

Herpesvirus esophagitis(TOPNOTCH)

96

What type of esophagitis presents with linear ulcerations of the esophageal mucosa with histologic findings of intranuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions?

CMV esophagitis(TOPNOTCH)

97

98% of Peptic Ulcers are located in what part of the GIT?

First portion of the anterior part of the duodenum(TOPNOTCH)

98

What is the most common location of gastric ulcer?

Lesser curvature (TOPNOTCH)

99

What is the most common location of gastric carcinoma is?

Pylorus and antrum > Cardia > body and fundus(TOPNOTCH)

100

What is the morphologic feature of gastric carcinoma that has the greatest impact on the clinical outcome?

Depth of invasion(TOPNOTCH)

101

What is the most common primary source of gastric metastasis?

Systemic lymphoma(TOPNOTCH)

102

What is the usual organism that cause spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with nephrotic syndrome?

E. coli(TOPNOTCH)

103

In bacterial peritonitis, approximately how many hours from the time of initiation before there is loss of the gray, glistening quality of the peritoneal surface and it becomes dull and lusterless?

2-4 hours(TOPNOTCH)

104

What is the histologic criterion for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis?

Presence of neutrophilic infiltration of the muscularis propria.(TOPNOTCH)

105

What is the most common site of gut carcinoid tumors?

Appendix(TOPNOTCH)

106

What is the most important prognostic indicator of colorectal carcinoma?

The extent of the tumor at the time of diagnosis or the stage(TOPNOTCH)

107

Morphology: a type of adenoma that has frondlike villiform extensions of the mucosa, covered by dysplastic, sometimes very disorderly columnar epithelium

Villous adenomas(TOPNOTCH)

108

These structures represent islands of inflamed regenerating mucosa surrounded by ulceration

Inflammatory or pseudopolyps(TOPNOTCH)

109

Most adenomas are seen in what part of the GIT?

Ampulla of Vater(TOPNOTCH)

110

Most tubular adenomas are found in what part of the GIT?

Colon(TOPNOTCH)

111

Gross morphology: small, flask like or spherical outpouchings, usually 0.5 to 1 cm and located in the sigmoid colon

Colonic diverticula(TOPNOTCH)

112

Morphology: thin wall composed of flattened or atrophic mucosa, compressed submucosa, and attenuated or totally absent muscularis propria.

Colonic diverticula(TOPNOTCH)

113

What are the two most important factors in the genesis of colonic diverticula?

Focal weakness in the colonic wall and increased intraluminal pressure(TOPNOTCH)

114

What is the most common site of angiodysplasia?

Cecum(TOPNOTCH)

115

Morphology: these are tortuous dilations of submucosal and mucosal blood vessels

Angiodysplasia(TOPNOTCH)

116

What area of the GIT is at greatest risk of ischemic injury?

Splenic flexure(TOPNOTCH)

117

Morphology: diffuse active inflammation with crypt abscess and glandular architectural distortion

Ulcerative Colitis(TOPNOTCH)

118

What is the earliest lesion seen in Crohn Disease?

Focal neutrophilic infiltration into the epithelial layer, particularly overlying mucosal lymphoid aggregates(TOPNOTCH)

119

What is the hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease, both CD and UC?

Chronic mucosal damage(TOPNOTCH)

120

Gross morphology: narrowing of lumen, bowel wall thickening, serosal extension of mesenteric fat, and linear ulceration of the mucosal surface

Crohn disease(TOPNOTCH)

121

What are the two key pathogenic abnormalities seen in Idiopathic Inflammatory Bowel disease?

Strong immune response against normal flora and defects in epithelial barrier function(TOPNOTCH)

122

Gross morphology: intestinal wall is rubbery and thick, as a consequence of edema, inflammation, fibrosis and hypertrophy of the muscularis propria

Crohn disease(TOPNOTCH)

123

Morphology: small intestinal mucosa laden with distended macrophages in the lamina propria which are PAS positive and contains numerous bacilli and diastase resistant granules

Whipple disease(TOPNOTCH)

124

Intestinal lipodystrophy is associated with what disease entity?

Whipple disase(TOPNOTCH)

125

Morphology: diffuse severe atrophy and blunting of villi, with a chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina propria

Celiac disease(TOPNOTCH)

126

Morphology: focal crypt cell necrosis or apoptosis with minimal to absent inflammatory cell response in the lamina propria

Acute GVHD(TOPNOTCH)

127

Morphology: marked blunting of the small intestinal villi with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate resembling the atrophic stage of celiac disease

Giardiasis(TOPNOTCH)

128

Morphology: superficial erosion of the mucosa and an adherent pseudomembrane of fibrin, mucus, and inflammatory debris

Pseudomembranous colitis(TOPNOTCH)

129

Morphology: small intestinal mucosa usually exhibits modestly shortened villi and infiltration of the lamina propria by lymphocytes

Viral gastroenteritis(TOPNOTCH)

130

What virus affecting the GIT can produce a flat mucosa resembling celiac sprue?

Rotavirus(TOPNOTCH)

131

Morphology: characterized by the absence of ganglion cells and ganglia in the muscle wall and submucosa of the affected segment

Congenital Aganglionic Megacolon(TOPNOTCH)

132

Stercoral ulcers are seen in what disease entity?

Congenital aganglionic megacolon(TOPNOTCH)

133

The majority of these tumors are positive for c-KIT (CD 117)

Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor(TOPNOTCH)

134

What is the most common site of gastric carcinoma?

Pylorus and anthrum 50%-60%(TOPNOTCH)

135

What is the most favored site of gastric carcinoma?

lesser curvature of the anthropyloric region(TOPNOTCH)

136

What is the morphologic feature of gastric carcinoma that has the greatest impact on clinical outcome?

Depth of invasion(TOPNOTCH)

137

This is a variant of gastric carcinoma composed of neoplastic intestinal glands resembling those of colonic adnocarcinoma and the neoplastic cells contain apical mucin vacuoles and abundant mucin may be present in gland lumens

Intestinal type(TOPNOTCH)

138

This is a variant of gastric carcinoma which is composed of gastric type mucous cells, which generally do not form glands, but rather permeate the mcosa and wall as scattered individual cells or small clusters in an infiltrative growth pattern

Diffuse type(TOPNOTCH)

139

What is the most common type of gastric polyp?

Hyperplastic polyp(TOPNOTCH)

140

In gastritis, histologically, what signifies an active inflammation?

Presence of neutrophils above the basement membrane.(TOPNOTCH)

141

H. pylori infection in duodenal ulcers is present in about how many percent of patients?

Virtually ALL (70% in patients with gastric ulcer(TOPNOTCH)