Flashcards in Year 10, Term 3 Deck (28):
What is a Prokaryotic
a single-celled organism which doesn't have a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles
What is Eukaryote
Is any organism whose cells have a cell nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes
Building blocks of DNA. They include a sugar or phosphate backbone and a nitrogenous base conjoined together by hydrogen bonds
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
A nucleic acid with a deoxyribose sugar and phosphate back bone; the molecule that determines the genetics characteristics of most living things
A section of DNA that carries the genetic code for a particular characteristic
Thread-like structures in the nucleus. Composed on DNA and proteins; contains the genetic information in the forms of genes
All the chromosomes in a cell other than sex chromosomes
One of the strands of a chromosome following replication
The number of chromosomes in body cells; two sets or 2N, 46
The number of chromosomes in sex cells; one set or N, 23
Two similar chromosomes in a diploid organism. Out of such homologous pair of chromosomes one is inherited from father and the other from mother.
The type of cell division that produces gametes with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell
The type of cell division that produces two daughter cells identical to the parent cell.
Is the process of making a copy of a cellular DNA
The chromosomes that determines the sex of the organism, In humans there are X and Y chromosomes
All the possible genes for a characteristic. Some alleles are more dominant over others. Humans can only carry two different alleles for one specific trait
The characteristic that is expressed
Is the entire set of genes in a cell, an organism, or an individual.
Having two different alleles in a cells genotype
Having two of the same allele in a cells genotype
A gene mutation is a permanent alteration in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene
Observable characteristics of the individual, the way the genotype is expressed.
Where all individual have the same genetic information for a characteristic generation after generation
The characteristic that is not expressed
normal bodily cells. Have a diploid number of chromosomes (46)
is the union of a human egg and sperm
A process in which something passes by degrees to a different more mature, advanced stage