Year 10, Term 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Year 10, Term 3 Deck (28):
1

What is a Prokaryotic

a single-celled organism which doesn't have a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles

2

What is Eukaryote

Is any organism whose cells have a cell nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes

3

Nucleotide

Building blocks of DNA. They include a sugar or phosphate backbone and a nitrogenous base conjoined together by hydrogen bonds

4

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

A nucleic acid with a deoxyribose sugar and phosphate back bone; the molecule that determines the genetics characteristics of most living things

5

Gene

A section of DNA that carries the genetic code for a particular characteristic

6

Chromosome

Thread-like structures in the nucleus. Composed on DNA and proteins; contains the genetic information in the forms of genes

7

Autosomes

All the chromosomes in a cell other than sex chromosomes

8

Chromatid

One of the strands of a chromosome following replication

9

Diploid number

The number of chromosomes in body cells; two sets or 2N, 46

10

Haploid number

The number of chromosomes in sex cells; one set or N, 23

11

Homologous chromosomes

Two similar chromosomes in a diploid organism. Out of such homologous pair of chromosomes one is inherited from father and the other from mother.

12

Meiosis

The type of cell division that produces gametes with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell

13

Mitosis

The type of cell division that produces two daughter cells identical to the parent cell.

14

DNA replication

Is the process of making a copy of a cellular DNA

15

Sex chromosomes

The chromosomes that determines the sex of the organism, In humans there are X and Y chromosomes

16

Alleles

All the possible genes for a characteristic. Some alleles are more dominant over others. Humans can only carry two different alleles for one specific trait

17

Dominant

The characteristic that is expressed

18

Genotype

Is the entire set of genes in a cell, an organism, or an individual. 

19

Heterozygous

Having two different alleles in a cells genotype

20

Homozygous

Having two of the same allele in a cells genotype

21

Mutation

A gene mutation is a permanent alteration in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene

22

Phenotype

Observable characteristics of the individual, the way the genotype is expressed.

23

Pure breeding

Where all individual have the same genetic information for a characteristic generation after generation

24

Recessive

The characteristic that is not expressed

25

Sematic

normal bodily cells. Have a diploid number of chromosomes (46)

26

Fertilization

 is the union of a human egg and sperm

27

Evolution

A process in which something passes by degrees to a different more mature, advanced stage

28

What are the five key aspects of natural selection

- Overproduction
- Variation
- Competition
- Survival of the fittest phenotype
- Favourable combinations increase