Flashcards in Zlotnik 1 Deck (25):
How many genes in humans? How many proteins expressed in a typical cell? How many genes still unknown?
What are the fxns of the 3 classes of proteins?
Secreted: transport, structural, hormone, cytokines
Transmembrane: cellular 'ID', receptors
Intracellular: homeostasis, signal transduction (ie. to nucleus)
What are the classes of drugs?
NCE (new chemical entities): traditional drugs (agonist/antagonist or ligand/receptor interaction)
Biological: insulin, erythropoietin, monoclonal antibodies (remicade or rituxan)
"New Wave" drugs: anti-cancer vaccines
BLOCK THIS or LOOK LIKE LIGAND most classes
How much blood does the avg body have? % of cells and plasma? What is the process by which blood cells are produced?
~5 liters of blood in body (50% is water)
-blood is 45% cells and 55% plasma
-RBC is most of the cells, but also platelets and leukocytes
-blood cells are produced in bone marrow by hematopoiesis
What is the breakdown of the formed elements of blood? RBC? WBC? Platelets?
RBC: 5.5million/ul (male), 4.8mil/ul (female)
WBC (leukocytes): 6k-11k/ul
--neutrophil: 3k-6k (50-70%)
--lymphocytes: 1500-4000 (20-40%)
--monocytes: 300-600 (2-8%
--eosinophils: 150-300 (1-4%)
--basophils: 0-100 (0-1%)
What is in plasma? Value for plasma proteins and albumin?
contains: electrolytes, proteins, carbs, lipids, minerals, enzymes, metabolites
plasma proteins: 7 g/dl
albumin: 4 g/dl
What is the hematocrit breakdown?
plasma (top): ~55%
leukocytes (middle): ~1-2%
erythrocytes (bottom): ~43%
37.5%-50% is normal range (higher in men)
Fxn of neutrophil?
these are polymorphonuclear cell (nuclear of many forms) and are the 'first responders' to microbial invasion
-found in pus
Fxn of eosinophil?
Deals with parasites
Fxn of basophil?
Related to mast cell, have vasoactive amines that participate in allergic response
Fxn of monocyte?
More serious 'defenders', come in after neutrophils
-BIG PARTICIPANT OF INFLAMMATION
-elevated levels is a lot more serious (ie TB)
Fxn of lymphocyte?
Divided into T and B lymphocytes
B lymphocytes produce ANTIBODIES
-CD4 T lymphocytes are 'directors' of immune system using CYTOKINES (target of HIV)
-CD8 T lymphocytes are cytotoxic cells; good for killing virus-infected cells
Needed for COAGULATION
T/F The life expectancy has only recently improved
T/F The 'normal' state of a human is to have parasites
Where might we see elevated neutrophils? monocytes? lymphocytes? eosinophils? basphils? platelets? Decreased levels?
neutrophil: increased in infection, decreased in leukemia, vitaminb12 deficiency
monocytes: increased in chronic inflammation, infections. decreased in leukemias
lymphocytes: increased in infections, leukemias. decreased in immunodeficiencies (HIV)
eosinophil: parasite infection
platelets: thrombosis (increased), decreased during bleeding
How does the site of hematopoiesis change from before birth and after birth?
Switches from liver to bone marrow following birth
Where are hematopoietic stem cells found?
In the bone marrow, also found their is their progeny and stroma that produce cytokines that promote their development
What are the types of hematopoietic stem cells?
pluripotent stem cells: self renewing, not yet decided.
committed stem cells: do not self renew, committed to particular path. "adolescent" cells
supporting tissue composed of?
stroma: fat cells, fibroblasts, macrophages, endothelial cells
what are cytokines?
small secreted proteins that control inflammation, immune response, and other processes by inducing differentiation and/or proliferation of certain cells
-cytokine is the "soup" of bone marrow
What are the subfamilies of cytokines?
TNF, interleukins, interferons, hematopoietic growth factors, chemokines
Why are cytokines important? Which ones drive hematopoiesis?
Cytokines DRIVE hematopoiesis
-those that are growth are stimulating factors are very important
ie SCF (stem cell factor; found in PLURIPOTENT cells, positive for C-Kit), IL 3, GM-CSF (granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor), G-CSF, M-CSF
What are important factors in hematopoiesis?
SCF (C-kit ligand): support of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells (CD34 is also expressed)
Erythropoietin (EPO): stimulate growth of RBC!
Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF): growth of neutrophils
Iron: heme synthesis
Folate (Vit B-12): DNA synthesis
Thrombopoietin: megakaryocyte (platelet) development
What is an indicator for hematopoiesis deficient bone marrow?
lots of fat cells