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Flashcards in Zlotnik 1 Deck (25):
1

How many genes in humans? How many proteins expressed in a typical cell? How many genes still unknown?

!23,500 genes
-3-5K proteins
-30%

2

What are the fxns of the 3 classes of proteins?

Secreted: transport, structural, hormone, cytokines
Transmembrane: cellular 'ID', receptors
Intracellular: homeostasis, signal transduction (ie. to nucleus)

3

What are the classes of drugs?

NCE (new chemical entities): traditional drugs (agonist/antagonist or ligand/receptor interaction)

Biological: insulin, erythropoietin, monoclonal antibodies (remicade or rituxan)

"New Wave" drugs: anti-cancer vaccines

BLOCK THIS or LOOK LIKE LIGAND most classes

4

How much blood does the avg body have? % of cells and plasma? What is the process by which blood cells are produced?

~5 liters of blood in body (50% is water)
-blood is 45% cells and 55% plasma
-RBC is most of the cells, but also platelets and leukocytes
-blood cells are produced in bone marrow by hematopoiesis

5

What is the breakdown of the formed elements of blood? RBC? WBC? Platelets?

RBC: 5.5million/ul (male), 4.8mil/ul (female)
WBC (leukocytes): 6k-11k/ul
--neutrophil: 3k-6k (50-70%)
--lymphocytes: 1500-4000 (20-40%)
--monocytes: 300-600 (2-8%
--eosinophils: 150-300 (1-4%)
--basophils: 0-100 (0-1%)

Platelets: 200k-500k/ul

6

What is in plasma? Value for plasma proteins and albumin?

contains: electrolytes, proteins, carbs, lipids, minerals, enzymes, metabolites

plasma proteins: 7 g/dl
albumin: 4 g/dl

7

What is the hematocrit breakdown?

plasma (top): ~55%
leukocytes (middle): ~1-2%
erythrocytes (bottom): ~43%

37.5%-50% is normal range (higher in men)

8

Fxn of neutrophil?

these are polymorphonuclear cell (nuclear of many forms) and are the 'first responders' to microbial invasion
-found in pus

9

Fxn of eosinophil?

Deals with parasites

10

Fxn of basophil?

Related to mast cell, have vasoactive amines that participate in allergic response

11

Fxn of monocyte?

More serious 'defenders', come in after neutrophils
-BIG PARTICIPANT OF INFLAMMATION

-elevated levels is a lot more serious (ie TB)

12

Fxn of lymphocyte?

Divided into T and B lymphocytes
B lymphocytes produce ANTIBODIES
-CD4 T lymphocytes are 'directors' of immune system using CYTOKINES (target of HIV)
-CD8 T lymphocytes are cytotoxic cells; good for killing virus-infected cells

13

Platelets

Needed for COAGULATION

14

T/F The life expectancy has only recently improved
T/F The 'normal' state of a human is to have parasites

True, true

15

Where might we see elevated neutrophils? monocytes? lymphocytes? eosinophils? basphils? platelets? Decreased levels?

neutrophil: increased in infection, decreased in leukemia, vitaminb12 deficiency

monocytes: increased in chronic inflammation, infections. decreased in leukemias

lymphocytes: increased in infections, leukemias. decreased in immunodeficiencies (HIV)

eosinophil: parasite infection
basophil: CML

platelets: thrombosis (increased), decreased during bleeding

16

How does the site of hematopoiesis change from before birth and after birth?

Switches from liver to bone marrow following birth

17

Where are hematopoietic stem cells found?

In the bone marrow, also found their is their progeny and stroma that produce cytokines that promote their development

18

What are the types of hematopoietic stem cells?

pluripotent stem cells: self renewing, not yet decided.

committed stem cells: do not self renew, committed to particular path. "adolescent" cells

19

supporting tissue composed of?

stroma: fat cells, fibroblasts, macrophages, endothelial cells

20

what are cytokines?

small secreted proteins that control inflammation, immune response, and other processes by inducing differentiation and/or proliferation of certain cells

-cytokine is the "soup" of bone marrow

21

What are the subfamilies of cytokines?

TNF, interleukins, interferons, hematopoietic growth factors, chemokines

22

Why are cytokines important? Which ones drive hematopoiesis?

Cytokines DRIVE hematopoiesis
-those that are growth are stimulating factors are very important

ie SCF (stem cell factor; found in PLURIPOTENT cells, positive for C-Kit), IL 3, GM-CSF (granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor), G-CSF, M-CSF

23

What are important factors in hematopoiesis?

SCF (C-kit ligand): support of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells (CD34 is also expressed)

Erythropoietin (EPO): stimulate growth of RBC!

Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF): growth of neutrophils

Iron: heme synthesis

Folate (Vit B-12): DNA synthesis

Thrombopoietin: megakaryocyte (platelet) development

24

What is an indicator for hematopoiesis deficient bone marrow?

lots of fat cells

25

What is the purpose of CXCL12/CXCR4?

Stem cells and immature blood cells remain tethered to stromal cells because of CXCL12 (chemokine) and CXCR4 (its receptor)

KEY: THEY KEEP HEMATOPOIETIC BONE MARROW CELLS IN THE BONE MARROW

down regulation = release into blood stream