Bourgogne Flashcards

1
Q

Where in France is Bourgogne?

A

It is a spreadout region in eastern France. It streches 140 miles/224 km north to south.

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2
Q

What are the five sub-regions?

A

Chablis, Cote de Nûits, Côte de Beaune, Côte Chalonnaise, Maconnais

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3
Q

Which river flows along the length of Bourgogne? What influence does it have on the vineyards?

A

The Saône river. It has no temperature moderating influence as it is too far away from the vineyards.

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4
Q

What is the overall climate?

A

It has a continental climate. There are Atlantic influences in the north around Chablis and Mediterranean influences in the most southerly around Maconnais.

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5
Q

What effect does the climate variation have on bud break and harvest?

A

Bud break happens a week later in the Chablis than in Maconnais and harvest comes in early September in Macon and late September in Chablis.

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6
Q

What are the two main climate/weather threats in Bourgogne?

A

Spring frosts and severe summer hail.

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7
Q

What was the original inhabitants of Bourgogne called prior to the Romans?

A

A Celtic tribe named the Eduens.

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8
Q

Why was Bourgogne an important trading region in the 1st century?

A

It was a major trade crossroads between the northern Celtic tribes and the Roman Empire. The four rivers of Saone, Rhone, Loire and Seine provided an excellent network of transport routes. Viticulture arrived with trading Celts or visiting Romans.

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9
Q

After the decline of the Roman Empire in 5th century CE what happened in Bourgogne?

A

Various barbarians sacked it. It was then settled by the Burgunds who called it Burgundia until Clovis brought it into the new Frankish kingdom.

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10
Q

How did the church assume its powerful role in viticulture?

A

After the violence and instability of the Dark Ages the church monks and monasteries filled the vacuum. They needed wine for mass so expanded and came to dominate the vineyards and production.

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11
Q

What important contribution did the monks make to the Bourgogne viticulture heritage?

A

They created the concept of “terroir”. They studied each of the vineyards and noted the taste differentiation between wines from individual parcels of land. They categorised these. Because of their work every parcel of land in Bourgogne has a name that recognises it’s uniqueness.

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12
Q

Name the four Dukes of Burgundy. What did any of them contribute to viticulture or wine production?

A

Phillippe the Bold (1363-1404) - outlawed Gamay to promote Pinot Noir;
John the Fearless (1404-1419) - assassinated;
Phillippe the the Good (1419-1467) - captured Joan of Arc, established Hospices de Beaune. Famous for its wine auction nowadays.
Charles the Rash (1467-1477) died trying to take Alsace-Lorraine

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13
Q

Why are there few monopoles?

A

During the French Revolution the domaines where broken up. Land was parcelled up and sold to ordinary citizens.

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14
Q

What impact did Phylloxera have on Bourgogne?

A

Its arrival reduced the area under vine and halted economic activity hence the population reduced.

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15
Q

What is the Napoleonic code and what did it do?

A

It was a law passed by Napoleon Bonaparte (1804-1815) which required landowners to divide their holdings equally between their heirs. This resulted in sub-division generation after generation.
As a result most Burgundian vineyards have multiple owners with many vignerons farming a few rows of vines on specific sites e.g. Clos de Vougeot has almost 80 vignerons. This healded the birth of the negociants. Unlike Bordeaux which created paper shares.

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16
Q

When was the double-barrelled village name introduced? Which village was first to adapt it?

A

In 1847 King Louis Phillippe granted Gevrey the right to add the name of its most famous vineyard, Chambertin, to its name.

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17
Q

What is the significance of the double-barrelled village names?

A

More villages with famous vineyard followed suit - Puligny, Chassagne, Aloxe - it gives the lesser vineyards in a village the reflected glory of the very greatest. It helped to market the wines.

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18
Q

When was the first wine auction at Hospices de Beaune?

A

1859.

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19
Q

When did vineyard classification take place?

A

First was in 1861 by the Agricultural Committee of Beaune which created three ranks.
In 1930 the boundaries were legally defined.
In 1936 AOC legislation gave form and structure to the named parcels and climats. Most of the “first class” vineyards from 1861 map became Grand Cru AOCs.

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20
Q

What was the ratio of red to white wine production in 1986 compared to 2019? Why did it change so much?

A

In1986 - 60% red; in 2019 60% white.
This was due to the change in consumer habits and a worldwide increase in demand for white in the 1980’s. Chablis and Maconnais expanded their plantings in response.

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21
Q

What are important statistics for Bourgogne wine production?

A

Produces 15.5 million cases annually;
White wine -60%
Red and Rosé - 29%
Cremant - 11%
16 Co-ops, 266 negociants, 3577 estates;
4.5% of production but 21% of French still wines revenue.

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22
Q

Decribe the geology of Bourgogne in general?

A

It is fundamentally a granite massif which has layers of mainly sedimentary soils of limestone and marl from many geological epochs including when this area was covered by a shallow sea.

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23
Q

How was Bourgogne formed?

A

It is a graben formed from the last European upheaval. The Alps rose and the Bresse Plain sank. It is bounded by the uplifts of the Morvan uplands, the Côte d’Or escarpment and the Jura Mountains. It is not a river valley. Soils are colluvial not alluvial.

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24
Q

Why is there such a varied soil age and juxtaposition?

A

Earths movement up, down, left and right disrupted the chronological layers, coupled with soil erosion and slope wash.

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25
Q

Where are most vineyards planted in Bourgogne?

A

On the slopes. However there are vineyards on the crests of the Côte d’Or escarpment among forests. These produce the Hautes Côtes de Beaune/ de Nuits wines.

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26
Q

What is soil and water retention like at the top of the slopes.

A

The tops of slopes have the thinnest soil and least water retention. Soils can be of good quality but steepness is not ideal. Rainfall runs off before it can be fully absorbed. Normally PREMIER CRU are grown here and some VILLAGE-level.

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27
Q

What makes mid-slope optimal for Grand Cru?

A

They capture the maximum sunlight, have adequate water and moderate amount of topsoil. Ideal for Grand Cru vineyards.

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28
Q

What is the soil and water conditions at the bottom of slopes?

A

The bottom of the slope generally has the deepest more fertile soils and retains the most amount of water. Normally Village-level and/or Regional-level wines are found here.

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29
Q

Why might different soils and slopes be found in a single or neighbouring vineyard sites?

A

Due to faulting. E.g. Clos de Vougeot has 13 climats.

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30
Q

What soil is preferred for:
a) Pinot Noir
b) Chardonnay

A

PN - limestone or marls with high limestone content - gives lightly pigmented but elegant wines;

Ch - marl - delivers powerfully dense, age worthy whites with concentration of flavour.

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31
Q

Give an example of how soil can be a marker for quality level.

A

Chablis for example - kimmeridgian marl is preferred (Grand Crus) to Portlandian marl (Petit Chablis).

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32
Q

Which grapes and what % are typically found in Grand Cru and village level bottlings?

A

100% Pinot Noir
100% Chardonnay

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33
Q

What are the main white grapes of Bourgogne wines?

A

Primary - Chardonnay - in all whites except Saint Bris, Bouzeron and Bougogne Aligoté;
Aligoté - second most important - 100% in Bouzeron and Bourgogne Aligoté;

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34
Q

What are the other white grapes of Bourgogne wines?

A

Sauv. Blanc in St. Bris;
Pinot Blanc in many village, regional and even some Grand Cru;
Sacy in Crémant;
Melon de Bougogne in Crémant and Coteaux Bourguignons.

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35
Q

What are the rosé/gris grapes of Bourgogne wines?

A

Pinot Gris (Pinot Beurot) can be used in many AOCs red and white to prescribed limits, but seldom used. It is a primary variety for Marsannay and Bourgogne rosé wines. However a 100% varietal is possible but uncommon.
Sauv.Gris is secondary variety for St. Bris.

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36
Q

What are the principal red grapes of Bourgogne wines?

A

Pinot Noir is the primary grape and the principal or only variety in most Bourgogne reds and the backbone of rosés.

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37
Q

What are the other red grapes of Bourgogne wines?

A

Gamay - used in regional appellations.
Cesar can be used in regional wines from the Yonne dept and Irancy AOC.

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38
Q

What are the uses for Gamay in wines from Bourgogne?

A

Regional Bourgogne - fruit must be sourced from anywhere in Bourgogne and Beaujolais;
Bourgogne Gamay - fruit must be sourced from the ten Beaujolais Crus;
Macon reds and rosés - primary grape along with Pinot Noir;
Macon DGC reds and rosés - sole red grape.

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39
Q

What are the % of area under vine in Bourgogne?

A

Pinot Noir - 39.5%;
Chardonnay - 51%;
Aligote - 6%;
Gamay - 2.5%;
Other - 1%.

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40
Q

What is meant by “ lutte raisonée” farming?

A

It means “reasoned fight” - environmentally and financially responsible farming practices and is most common in Bourgogne.

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41
Q

What % (in 2017) of vignerons where moving to organic and/or biodynamic farming? Give examples.

A

8.6% are organic or in conversion. Some have gone biodynamic notably Domaine de la Romanee Conti and Domaine Leflaive.

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42
Q

What harvesting methods are predominant in the Bourgogne sub regions?

A

Machine - Chablis and Maconnais;
Handpicking - Côte d’Or;
Côte Chalonnaise - both methods

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43
Q

What is the most common training method?

A

Guyot single and double. However cordon is becoming more popular.

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44
Q

What impact has a changing climate had on Bourgogne viticulture?

A

Bud break is earlier resulting in earlier harvest of about 10 days compared to 20 years ago;
In the past full ripening was a problem however today the challenge is to delay harvest so that sugar and phenolic ripening happen together and natural acidity remains.

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45
Q

What are the climate hazards and what has been tried to combat them?

A

Vine-damaging hailstorms and frosts.
Fans, sprayers and fires/candles to combat frost.
A hail shield which uses cannon to fire silver oxide pellets into clouds if hail is forecast.
Diversification.

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46
Q

How are white wines fermented in Bourgogne?

A

Stainless steel tanks or 228ltr barrels.

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47
Q

How does white wine maturation differ between the sub-regions of Bourgogne?

A

Most Maconnais and Chablis whites are matured in stainless steel or concrete or neutral oak vats. Preserves the aromatic quality and purity.
Oak maturation is common for Côte d’Or and Côte Chalonnaise whites at village level and higher - typically 20-50% of new oak barrels used.

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48
Q

What is “PREMOX”?

A

It is PREMATURE OXIDATION - a situation by which white Bourgogne ages too quickly or becomes completely oxidised and is still a problem.

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49
Q

How is premox caused?

A

The cause is not completely understood but is believed to have multiple causes - certain clones, fully ripe fruit, less use of sulphur and less batonnage are primary suspects. It is diminishing as action is taken on these fronts.

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50
Q

How does Bourgogne chardonnay differ from that from warmer, sunnier climates?

A

Typically it will have less fruit (flavour), less alcohol, less aroma, less overt oak, more structure (acid), and more mineral notes.

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51
Q

How has red wine vinification changed in Bourgogne due to warmer temperatures?

A
  1. Adding whole clusters to fermentation by some producers - brighter flavours;
  2. Use of ambient, indigenous yeasts by small producers. Large negociants often select commercial yeasts. (More predictable outcomes);
  3. Switch from punching down extraction techniques to pump over methods and shorter macerations. Reduces tannin and pigments from matured grapes.
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52
Q

How long do classified red wines of Côte d’Or and Côte Chalonnaise spend in oak after fermentation?

A

Normally around 12-18 months in barrel with some new oak, depending on the quality of the grapes and the appellation.

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53
Q

How does Bourgogne Pinot Noir differ from that from warmer, sunnier climates?

A

It typically has less pigment, less tannin, less fruit, less alcohol, less overt oak, more structure and more spice elements than that from warmer, sunnier growing areas.

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54
Q

How is Crémant de Bourgogne made?

A

By the Traditional Method ( as in Champagne).

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55
Q

What is a négociant?

A

A négociant is a company that purchases grapes or wine from growers who aretoo small or dont have the inclination to produce, bottle or market their own wine.

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56
Q

Why are négociants important in Bourgogne?

A

As a result of the Napoleonic Code the average individual vineyardholding is 16.1ac/6.51ha. This makes it difficult for vignerons to produce proprietary labels. They can also be spread over separate apellations none of which has sufficient quantity to be commercially viable. Négociants provide a solution to this.

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57
Q

What is the breakdown of the elements in the industry.

A

In 2019 there were 3577 domaines, 16 cooperatives and 266 negociants. 52% of all the wine produced is sold through négociants.

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58
Q

Are négociant wines inferior to domaine wines?

A

No. Négociants often havethe capital to purchase new tanks, barrels and equipment to increase the quality of their bottlings. Today many négociants are growers and vice versa.

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59
Q

What is a micro-negociant?

A

An enterprise which focusses on individual sites orappellarions and produce terroir-based, high-end micro-cuvées.

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60
Q

How does Bourgogne classification differ from Bordeaux?

A

Bordeaux classifies its chateaux and ranks them into quality tiers.
Bourgogne classifies the vineyards, (like Alsace). Single, unclassified vineyards all have names that respect their terroir. Good quality vineyards have achieved 1er Cru status: great vineyards have earned Grand Cru status.

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61
Q

What is the number of AOCs of the various ranking levels in Bourgogne?

A

Arranged from more general zones to specific zones of production;
RegionalAOCs - 7 - (52%)
Village AOCs - 44 - (37%)
Premier Crus - 662 climats - (10%) PART OF VILLAGE AOCs
Grand Crus AOCs - 33 - (1%)

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62
Q

Can a regional Bourgogne Blanc be labelled as a regional Macon?

A

No. The grapes can be sourced from anywhere in Bourgogne or from a specific area.
A Macon can be named as a Bourgogne Blanc but a Bourgogne Blanc CANNOT use the regional Macon appellation UNLESS all of the fruit hails from the Maconnais.

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63
Q

How many regional apellations in Bourgogne?
What % of the region’s production?

A

There are 7 in total:
THREE cover a wide range of regional dry wines;
Bourgogne AOC; Macon AOC; Coteaux Bourguignons AOC;
FOUR are for specialty style or grapes:
Crémant de Bourgogne AOC; Bourgogne Mousseux AOC; Bourgogne Aligoté AOC; Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains AOC.
Regionals Produce 52%.

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64
Q

What are the three classisifications in Bourgogne AOC?

A

Bourgogne AOC;
Bourgogne Gamay;
Bourgogne plus DGC.

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65
Q

Wine labelled purely as “Bourgogne” can be sourced from where?
What can be shown on regional wines label only?

A

They can be made from grapes grown anywhere in the region. However there are some from specific parcels of land with no other AOC.
REGIONAL WINES CAN SHOW THE GRAPE VARIETY ON THE LABEL.
They will also include the word “Bourgogne” or “Macon” in the name.

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66
Q

What is the requirement to be labelled “Bourgogne Gamay”?

A

NOTE :This is not a separate AOC but is part of Bourgogne AOC.
The wine must be 85% Gamay grapes sourced from the Beaujolais Crus.

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67
Q

What is the requirement to be labelled “Bourgogne + DGC?

A

NOTE :This is not a separate AOC but is part of Bourgogne AOC.
There are 13 DGCs each representing a defined area of Bourgogne AOC. Makered, white and rosé mostly.
Grapes must come from the DGC and the word Bourgogne” must precede the DGC on the label.
Eg Bourgogne Epineuil.

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68
Q

When was Bourgogne AOC awarded?
Which wine styles permitted?
Which grape varieties permitted?

A

Awarded 1937 for Dry white, red and Rosé.
White - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Rosé/Gris - Pinot Gris
Red - Pinot Noir plus Gamay (Beaujolais Cru), César ( in Yonne)

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69
Q

What are the main grapes in Bourgogne Blanc/Red?

A

White - normally 100% Chardonnay;
Red - normally 100% Ponot Noir
HOWEVER - they can contain Pinot Blanc/Gris.
Some can contain CÉSAR if grown in north near Chablis. The red can also contain Gamayfrom Beaujolais Crus.
Rosé - normally Pinot Noir but as for reds may be other grapes.

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70
Q

What are three classifications within Macon AOC?

A

Macon AOC;
Macon DGC;
Macon-Villages

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71
Q

When was Macon AOC Awarded? What is its defined area?
Which wine styles permitted?
Which grape varieties permitted?

A

Awarded 1937 for the Maconnais sub-region.
Dry red, white and rosé.
White - CHARDONNAY ONLY;
Rosé - Pinot Noir, Gamay;
Red - Pinot Noir, Gamay ( often blended).

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72
Q

How many Macon DGCs? How are they labelled? Which grapes are permitted

A

There are 26 DGC for white wines and 20 for red and rosé wines. The DGC can append its name to Macon on the label eg Macon+ DGC.
WHITES MUST USE ONLY CHARDONNAY.
REDS AND ROSÉS MUST USE GAMAY NOT PINOT NOIR.

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73
Q

How is a Macon village wine labelled? What grapes are permitted?

A

Macon-Villages and must be Chardonnay only.

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74
Q

When was Coteaux de Bourgogne AOC Awarded? What is its defined area?
Which wine styles permitted?

A

Awarded 1937 and is the most general of all regional the AOCs. It was formerly called Bourgogne Grand Ordinaire.
It produces dry white, red and rosé wines.

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75
Q

Which grape varieties permitted?

A

White - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc, Aligote, Melon;
Rosé/Gris - Pinot Gris;
Red - Pinot Noir, Gamay, Cesar (in Yonne).
White wine can be made from any of the white grapes.
Rosé wines, also known as Clairet, can be made from red grapes plus Pinot Gris.
Reds will be Pinot Noir and/or Gamay.

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76
Q

Name the four specialty regional AOCs in Bourgogne?

A

Cremant de Bourgogne AOC;
Bourgogne Mousseux AOC;
Bourgogne Aligote;
Bourgogne-Passe-Touts-Grains.

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77
Q

When was Cremant de Bourgogne AOC Awarded? What is its defined area?
Which wine styles permitted?
Which grape varieties permitted?

A

Awarded AOC IN 1975 covering all of Bourgogne for Sparkling White and Rosé.
Grapes:
White - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc, Aligoté, Melon, Sacy;
Rosé/Gris- Pinot Gris;
Red - Pinot Noir, Gamay.

Normally Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Chardonnay and Pinot Noir are most commonly used.

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78
Q

What are the three styles of Cremant available?

A

Cremant de Bourgogne, plus Premium styles - Eminent and Grànd Eminent

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79
Q

How long is Cremant de Bourgogne aged?

A

Nine months sur lies plus a numberof months after disgorgement to integrate the dosage.

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80
Q

How does Eminent differ from general Cremant?

A

Eminent must be aged for 24 months sur lie compared to 9 months for general Cremant.

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81
Q

How does Grand Eminent differ from general Cremant and Eminent?

A

A Grand Eminent must undergo a minimum of 36 months aging sur lie plus spend 3 months in the cellar between disgorgement and release. It is of Brut style, must receive less than 1.5%/15g/lof dosage and attain a minimum 10% abv.

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82
Q

Which grapes are permitted for the Grand Eminent labels? What juice is used?

A

Whites can be made from Chardonnay and Pinot Noir only. Rosé can include up to 20% Gamay.
Only the first 75% of the juice from the press can be used for Grand Eminent.

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83
Q

When was Bourgogne Mousseux AOC awarded?
Which wine styles permitted?
Which grape varieties permitted?
How long is it aged?

A

Awarded in 1943 for the production of Sparkling Red ONLY.
White - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc, Aligoté, Melon;
Rosé/Gris - Pinot Gris;
Red - Pinot Noir, Gamay.
Note: it is normally made from Gamay and/or Pinot Noir.
Must age 9 months on lees and have at least 3.5 atms.

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84
Q

When was Bourgogne Aligote AOC awarded?
Which wine styles permitted?
Which grape varieties permitted?

A

Awarded 1937 for dry white only made from the Aligoté grape.

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85
Q

When was Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains AOC awarded?
Which wine styles permitted?
Which grape varieties permitted?
Which are normally used?

A

Awarded 1937 for dry Rosé and Red.
White - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Rosé/Gris - Pinot Gris;
Red - Gamay, Pinot Noir
PTG must be at least 30% PN and 15% Gy. Other varieties can be used if they are in a field blend.

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86
Q

What was the % production by regional AOC in 2018?

A

Bourgogne AOC and DGC - 39%;
Macon AOC and Villages - 28%;
Cremant de Bourgogne AOC - 19%;
Bourgogne Aligoté - 11%;
Coteaux andPTG - 3%

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87
Q

What are the two classifications within the Village wines?

A

Village - made from grapes from within a specific zone of production surrounding a specific village. It is narrower than a regional zone and demonstrates typicity of that smaller zone.

Village plus named “climat/lieu dit” - made with grapes from a single vineyard.

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88
Q

How many village AOCs are there?

A

44 representing 37% of production (2019).

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89
Q

What is Premier Cru? What does it signify?

A

Premier Cru is a designation which is a part of the Village AOC. There are 662 climats within the villges AOCs. They are not separate AOCs.
Premier Cru climats have a reputation for producing high-quality wine.

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90
Q

How might 1er Cru appear on a label?

A

It can appear in two ways:
1. If the wine is from a single vineyard the vineyard name will appear on the label along with the village name. It is not obligatury to include vineyard name but most producers do;
2. If the label says 1er Cru plus Village name only it is a blend from more than one Premier Cru vineyard.

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91
Q

What is meant by Grand Cru on a label?

A

Grand Cru represents a single vineyardwith a reputation for producing truly exceptional wine.
Only the name of the vineyard appears on the label. (Except for Chablis which appears on all of its Grand Cru)

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92
Q

How many Grand Cru in Bourgogne?

A

33 representing 1% of total production (2019)

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93
Q

Which are the northernmost sub-regions of Bourgogne?

A

Chablis, Grand Auxerrois and Chatillonais (CGC)

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94
Q

What are the character of red and white wines from these areas?

A

They are typically lean with racy acidity. Saline flavours which are hard to assign to fruit, vinification or cellaring techniques, often considered “mineral”.

95
Q

Where are Chablis vineyards located?

A

On the slopes of the Serein River Valley.

96
Q

Where are Grand Auxerrois vineyards located?

A

Around the towns of Auxerre, Tonnerre, Joigny and Vézelay.

97
Q

Where are Chatillonais vineyards located?

A

To the east of Chablis and Tonnerre.

98
Q

Describe the climate in this area. What are the climate risks?

A

It has a CONTINENTAL climate with oceanic influences. Summers are warm; winters are cold. Rainfall is sufficient for the vine (25-27”/ 635-685 mm p.a.). Autumn can be dry and sunny with wide diurnal swings. Springs are susceptible to frost and severe hailstorms can occur at any time.
The cloud cover lowers temperatures, slows ripening and helps Chablisretain its typical high acidity.

99
Q

What type of soils are the Grand/Premier Crus of Chablis AOC vineyards on?

A

They are on Kimmeridgian marl, a sedimentary soil of limestone-rich clay formed 160 mya.

100
Q

What effect does this soil have on the wines from Chablis?

A

At these latitudes it conveys a high-tensile strength and racy edge to wine. They are almost “electric”. They give the signature minerality to the wines.

101
Q

Where are Petit Chablis AOC. vineyards located. What type of soils are the vineyards on?

A

They tend to be away from the principal valley and slopes, at higher altitude and therefore cooler, so wines are sharper and more tart and lack minerality associated with Kimmeridgian marl.
They are on Portlandian marl from 140 mya.

102
Q

What soils are the vineyards of Grand Auxerrois and Chatillonais located on?

A

They are on Portlandian marl and in cooler locations.

103
Q

What is the only grape permitted in any of the Chablis AOCs?

A

Chardonnay

104
Q

How many AOC in Chablis? What are the four categories of wine?

A

Three:
Chablis Grand Cru AOC;
Chablis AOC;
Petit Chablis AOC.
Categories : Grand Cru, 1er Cru, Chablis, Petit Chablis

105
Q

When was Chablis Grand Cru AOC awarded? What wine styles? Grapes permitted?

A

Awarded 1938 for dry white wine only made from Chardonnay grapes only.

106
Q

What are the 7 official climats in the Grand Cru hillside? What is unofficial one?

A

Official : Blanchot, Bougros, Le Clos, Grenouilles, Preuse, Valdemur, Vaudesir.
Unofficial : La Moutonne

107
Q

When was Chablis AOC awarded? What wine styles? Grapes permitted?

A

Awarded 1938 for dry white wine from Chardonnay grapes only.

108
Q

How many Grand Cru/Premier Cru in Chablis AOC? Where are they located?

A

No GC
Forty 1er Cru grouped under 17 “umbrella” Premier Crus which increases market visibility. Each can choose to use the climat name OR the umbrella climat name on the label.
Located on slopes close to Serein river on both banks.

109
Q

When was Petit Chablis AOC awarded? What wine styles? Grapes permitted?

A

Awarded 1944 for dry white wine from Chardonnay grapes only.

110
Q

What are the appellations of Grand Auxerrois?

A

It includes Auxerrois and Tonnerrois.
Most grapes are used in production of Regional Bourgogne wines or DGC. There are three other village AOCs:
St Bris AOC;
Irancy AOC;
Vézelay AOC.

111
Q

When was St Bris AOC awarded? For which style? Permitted grapes? Soil type?

A

Awarded 2003 for dry white made from Sauvignon Blanc and Sauvignon Gris. It is Kimmeridgian and Portlandian marl soils.

112
Q

When was Irancy AOC awarded? For which style? Permitted grapes? Soil type?

A

Awarded 1999 for dry red. Grapes are:
Red - Pinot Noir, Cesar (max 10%)
Rosé/Gris - Pinot Gris
Soil - Kimmeridgian marl.

113
Q

When was Vézelay AOC awarded? For which style? Permitted grapes? Soil type?

A

Awarded 2017 for dry white made from Chardonnay.It is limestone and clay soils.

114
Q

What does Chatillonais produce?

A

Only regional bottlings. It has established a niche for production of Cremant from Pinot Noir, Gamay, Aligote and Chardonnay.

115
Q

How are Chablis wines fermented and aged?

A

Normally in stainless steel to preserve the purity of the wine. If oak is used it will be old and neutral and add no oak flavour. Oak can be used to enrich the Grand Cru wines however new oak will be used sparingly so as not to overpower the wines pure flavours.

116
Q

What is the local Chablis name for Chardonnay?

A

Beaunois

117
Q

What is % breakdown for production Chablis and Grand Auxerrois (2018)?

A

Chablis AOC - 58%;
Petit Chablis AOC - 19%;
Chablis 1er Cru - 14%;
St Bris and Irancy - 3% each;
Chablis GC AOC - 2%;
Vézelay - 1%.

118
Q

What is the topography of the Côte d’Or? What are the two sub-regions of the Côte D’Or?

A

It is a limestone escarpment stretching from Dijon to Corgoloin, approximtely 25 miles. Côte de Nuits and Côte de Beaune.

119
Q

How many Grand Cru sites in Côte de Nuits? -Côte de Beaune?

A

There are 32 GC sites.
Côte de Nuits:
Gevrey-Chambertin - 9;
Morey-St. Denis - 5 (1 shared);
Chambolle-Musigny - 2 (1 shared);
Vougeot - 1;
Vosne-Romanée - 8
Côte de Beaune:
Aloxe - Corton - 3
Puligny-Montrachet - 4 (2 shared)
Chassagne-Montrachet - 3 (2 shared).

120
Q

What is the climate of Côte d’Or? What are the climate hazards?

A

The climate is continental with high continentality and diurnal range. There are hot summers and cold winters.
The hazards are spring frosts, hailstorm and excessive rainfall in May, June and October. Because of the short growing season this can impact significantly on the yield and harvest.

121
Q

Where are the vineyards of Côte de Nuits located? What is the soil type?

A

They are located on EAST-facing slopes of the escarpment between 720-1150 ft./220-350 mtrs elevation.
The soil type is sedimentary limestones and limestone rich marls from 160-170 mya.

122
Q

Which grape is best suited to the soils of the Côte de Nuits?

A

Primarily Pinot Noir.

123
Q

What is the main style produced in Côte de Nuits? Which GC is an exception to the norm?

A

Overwhelmingly dry red wine, firmly structured with dark berry fruits, earth and spice.
The exception is Chambolle-Musigny which produces more elegant perfumed reds.
There are small quantities of white.

124
Q

Which villages produce white wine in Côte de Nuits?

A

Marsannay, Fixin, Morey-St. Denis, Musigny, Vougeot and Nuits-St-Georges.

125
Q

When was Marsannay AOC awarded? For which styles? Which grapes are permitted? How many GC and PC?

A

Awarded in 1987 for dry white, Rosé and red. Grapes are:
White- (P) Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Rosé/Gris - Pinot Gris;
Red - Pinot Noir
(0 GC, 0 PC)
Note: this is the only AOC in Côte de Nuits permitted to produce Rosé for which it is best known.

126
Q

When was Fixin AOC awarded? For which styles? Which grapes are permitted? How many GC and PC?

A

Awarded in 1936 for dry white and red. Mostly produces reds. Grapes are:
White- (P) Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Rosé/Gris - (P) Pinot Gris;
Red - (P) Pinot Noir
(6 GC, 0 PC)

127
Q

When was Gevrey-Chambertin AOC awarded? For which styles? Which grapes are permitted? How many GC and PC?

A

Awarded in 1936 for dry red. Only produces reds.
Grapes are:
White- (S) Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Rosé/Gris - (S) Pinot Gris;
Red - (P) Pinot Noir
(9 GC, 26 PC)

128
Q

What is Gevrey-Chambertin link to the hyphenated name?

A

Chambertin was reputed to be the favourite wine of Napoleon. It’s fame was such that Gevrey petitioned to have the name of the vineyard added to the name of the village. This was granted by King Louis-Phillipe in 1847. Most other villages did likewise. It increased their marketability due to association with the reputed vineyards.

129
Q

Name the GC vineyards of Gevrey-Chambertin.

A

Chambertin, Chambertin Clos de Beze, Chapelle-Chambertin, Charmes-Chambertin, Mazis-Chambertin, Mazoyeres-Chambertin, Griottes-Chambertin, Latricieres-Chambertin, Ruchottes-Chambertin.
(Note - it is the largest village appellation in Côte d’Or.)

130
Q

When was Morey-Saint-Denis AOC awarded? For which styles? Which grapes are permitted? How many GC and PC?

A

Awarded in 1936 for dry white and red. Mostly produces reds. Grapes are:
White- (P) Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc, Aligoté;
Rosé/Gris - (S) Pinot Gris;
Red - (P) Pinot Noir
(5 GC, (1 shared), 20 PC)

131
Q

Why is Aligote included as a permitted grape in Morey-St-Denis?

A

The climat of Monts Luisants is permitted to make 100% Aligote and as a blend.

132
Q

Name the Grand Cru vineyards of Morey-St-Denis.

A

Clos de la Roche, Clos St Denis, Clos des Lambrays, Clos de Tart and Bonne Mares (shared with Chambolle-Musigny).

133
Q

How did the AOC system change wine production in Morey-St-Denis.

A

Prior to 1936 its wine was marketed under Gevrey-Chambertin or Chambolle-Musigny. Its quality is recognised today as modern Pinot Noir clones are developed from stock taken from Clos de la Roche vineyard.

134
Q

When was Chambolle-Musigny AOC awarded? For which styles? Which grapes are permitted? How many GC and PC?

A

Awarded in 1936 for dry red . However Musigny GC can produce white. Grapes are:
White- (S) Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Rosé/Gris - (S) Pinot Gris;
Red - (P) Pinot Noir
(2 GC, (1 shared) 24 PC)

135
Q

What distinguishes wine from Chambolle-Musigny from other reds in Cote de Nuits?

A

Its wines are regarded as more delicate than the more structured reds. They are often described as “silken and lace”.

136
Q

Name the GCs of Chambolle-Musigny.

A

Bonne Mares (shared with Morey-St-Denis) and Musigny. Musigny is one of only two GCs permitted to produce white wine. The other is Corton.

137
Q

When was Vougeot AOC awarded? For which styles? Which grapes are permitted? How many GC and PC?

A

Awarded in 1936 for dry white and red . Produces almost exclusively red.
Grapes are:
White- (P) Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Rosé/Gris - (S) Pinot Gris;
Red - (P) Pinot Noir
(1GC, 4 PC)

138
Q

Name Vougeot GC. What is unique about it?

A

Clos de Vougeot. It is the smallest village in Cote d’Or but largest Grand Cru. Three quarters of total production comes from its single GC. It is unique because it is the only GC in Côte d’Or that is AT THE BOTTOM OF THE SLOPE.

139
Q

What is Chateau de Clos Vougeot famous for?

A

It is a national monument. Home to the Confrieres des Chevaliers du Tastevin.

140
Q

When was Vosne-Romanée AOC awarded? For which styles? Which grapes are permitted? How many GC and PC?

A

Awarded in 1936 for dry red . Produces exclusively red.
Grapes are:
White- (S) Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Rosé/Gris - (S) Pinot Gris;
Red - (P) Pinot Noir
(8GC, 14 PC)

141
Q

Name the GC of Vosne-Romanée. Which ones are “Monopoles”? (Marked with *)

A

La Romanée *;
Romanée-Conti *;
Romanée-Saint-Vivant;
Richebourg;
La Tache *;
Echézeaux;
Grand Echézeaux;
La Grande Rue *.

142
Q

When was Nuits-Saint-Georges AOC awarded? For which styles? Which grapes are permitted? How many GC and PC?

A

Awarded in 1936 for dry white and red.
Grapes are:
White- (P) Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Rosé/Gris - (S) Pinot Gris;
Red - (P) Pinot Noir
(0 GC, 41 PC)

143
Q

Which PC vineyard in Nuits-Saint-Georges is regarded as GC worthy?

A

Its flagship vineyard Saint-Georges.

144
Q

What role does the town of Nuits-Saint-Georges play in the wine industry of this area?

A

It is a centre for wine shippers, brokers, negociants, cooperages and crémant production. 45% of its production comes from Premier Cru vineyards.

145
Q

What does Côte-de Nuits-VillagesAOC appellation provide?

A

It allows lesser know villages to use a more well known name.

146
Q

When was Côte-de Nuits- Villages AOC awarded? For which styles? Which grapes are permitted? How many GC and PC?

A

Awarded 1937 for dry white and red. Produces mostly red.
Grapes are:
White- (P) Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Rosé/Gris - (S) Pinot Gris;
Red - (P) Pinot Noir
(0 GC, 0 PC)

147
Q

Which villages share the Côte-de Nuits- Villages AOC?

A

Fixin, Brochon,Premeaux, Comblanchien and Corgoloin.

148
Q

How can Côte-de Nuits- Villages AOC wine differ in style?

A

Depending on source of the fruit, wine from the north will have chalky tannins and bracing acidity, whereas from the southern villages it will be soft on the palate with a rich amalgamation of spice and earth.

149
Q

Where is the Côte de Beaune located? What is the climate?

A

It is the southern part ofthe Côte d’Or. It stretches from Ladoix-Serrigny to Maranges and is 15 1/2(25 km) miles long on the slopes of an escarpment. Climate is continental.

150
Q

What is the elevation and aspect of the slopes in Côte de Beaune vineyards?

A

Around 720-1150 ft/220-350mtrs. They are generally SE facing. The escarpment is more broken and less consistent than the Côte de Nuits.

151
Q

Which vineyards are on the plateau at the top of the escarpment?

A

Hautes Côte de Beaune AOC producing Bourgogne Hautes Côte de Beaune wines. THIS IS A DGC.

152
Q

What are the soil types of Côte de Beaune?

A

Two types:
Heavier more clay-like LIMESTONE-RICH MARL soil in much of the Côte de Beaune which suits RED WINES;
Lighter less clay-like LIMESTONE soils which suit WHITE WINES - they dominate in MERSAULT, PULIGNY AND CHASSAGNE.
The soils are slightly younger than Côte de Nuits soils at 160-150 mya.

153
Q

How do reds from Côte de Beaune differ from Côte de Nuit reds?

A

They are generally a little lighter. They are elegant and full of finesse with more depth and concentration from Volnay, Pommard, Beaune and Aloxe-Corton.

154
Q

What is the style of whites from Côte de Beaune?

A

Styles vary from rich and intense to taut and fresh depending on soil and topography.

155
Q

What is red/white production in Côte de Beaune?

A

Two thirds red, one third white.

156
Q

Name the 8 Grand Cru of Côte de Beaune.

A

Corton, Corton-Charlemagne, Charlemagne, Montrachet, Chevalier-Montrachet, Bienvenues-Batard-Montrachet, Batard-Montrachet, Criots-Batard-Montrachet.

157
Q

Name the AOCs of Côte de Beaune.

A

Ladoix, Aloxe-Corton, Pernand-Vergelesses, Chorey-lés-Beaune, Savigny-lés-Beaune, Beaune, Côte de Beaune, Pommard, Volnay, Monthélie, Saint-Romain, Auxey-Duresses, Saint-Aubin, Meursault, Puligny-Montrachet, Chassagne-Montrachet, Blagny, Santenay, Maranges, Côte de Beaune-Villages

158
Q

Which villages in Côte de Beaune have Grand Cru vineyards?

A

Ladoix - 2 ( both shared);
Aloxe-Corton - 3 (all shared);
Pernand-Vergelesses - 3 (all shared);
Puligny-Montrachet - 4 (2 shared);
Chassagne-Montrachet - 3 (2 shared).
Total = 8

159
Q

Which grape varieties are permitted in Côte de Beaune AOCs? How many GC and/or PC.

A

White (P or S) - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Gris/Rosé (S);
Red (P).

160
Q

What is the famous hill in Côte de Beaune?

A

The hill of Corton in the north of the sub-region. Its vineyards are shared between Aloxe-Corton, Pernand-Vergelesses (all three), and Ladoix-Serrigny( two only).

161
Q

What are the GC vineyards on the hill of Corton? What style do they produce?

A

GC Corton - mainly red with some white;
GC Corton-Charlemagne - white only;
GC Charlemagne - white only.
GC Charlemagne is rarely used as it is a sub-zone of Corton-Charlemagne and is entitled to that more famous AOC label.

162
Q

When was Aloxe-Corton AOC awarded? For which style? Which grapes?

A

Awarded 1936 for dry white and red.
White (P or S) - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Gris/Rosé (S);
Red (P).
3 GC and 14 PC.

163
Q

Which GC are shared by Aloxe-Corton?

A

73% of it vineyards are in GC Corton and GC Corton-Charlemagne. It also shares GC Charlemagne with Pernand-Vergelesses.

164
Q

When was Ladoix AOC awarded? For which style? Which grapes?

A

Awarded 1937 for dry white and red.
White (P or S) - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Gris/Rosé (S);
Red (P).
2 GC and 11PC.
It is entitled to label under Ladoix AOC but sells most of its wine as Côte de Beaune-Villages AOC.

165
Q

Which GC are shared by Ladoix-Serrigny?

A

A quarter of its vineyards area lies within GC Corton and a small portion in GC Corton-Charlemagne which it shares with Aloxe-Corton and Pernand-Vergelesses.

166
Q

When was Pernand-Vergelesses AOC awarded? For which style? Which grapes?

A

Awarded 1936 for dry white and red.
White (P or S) - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Gris/Rosé (S);
Red (P).
3 GC (shared) and 8 PC.

167
Q

How many appellations are there around Beaune?

A

There are 4 AOCs:
Chorey-lés-Beaune AOC;
Savigny-lés-Beaune AOC;
Beaune AOC;
Côte de Beaune AOC.

168
Q

When was Chorey-lés-Beaune AOC awarded? For which style? Which grapes? How is it labelled?

A

Awarded 1937 for dry white and red.
White (P or S) - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Gris/Rosé (S);
Red (P).
0 GC and 0 PC.
Mainly bottled as Côte de Beaune-Village

169
Q

Describe Chorey-lés-Beaune AOC.

A

It lies on flat plains to the north of Beaune. It has a top dressing of alluvial limestone scree from the River Rhoin which increases its potential.

170
Q

When was Savigny-lés-Beaune AOC awarded? For which style? Which grapes?

A

Awarded 1937 for dry white and red.
White (P or S) - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Gris/Rosé (S);
Red (P).
0 GC and 22 PC.
Mainly red production.

171
Q

Describe Savigny-lés-Beaune AOC.

A

Its vineyards are bisected by the Rhoin River and produce two different styles depending on aspect. Wines from the south facing slopes are structured and generous, whereas those from the north-facing slopes of Bois-de-Noel are elegant and finer. Twelve of the PC lie on the Bois-de-Noel.

172
Q

When was Beaune AOC awarded? For which style? Which grapes? Where are the vineyards located?

A

Awarded 1936 for dry white and red.
White (P or S) - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Gris/Rosé (S);
Red (P).
0 GC and 42 PC.
Mainly red production. 75% is 1er Cru level.
Most of the vineyards are found on a large contiguous SE-facing slope to the west of town.

173
Q

Why is Beaune an important commercial centre?

A

It is home to the Hospice de Beaune and many major negociants.

174
Q

When was Côte de Beaune AOC awarded? For which style? Which grapes? Where are the vineyards located?

A

Awarded 1937 for dry white and red.
White (P or S) - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Gris/Rosé (S);
Red (P).
0 GC and 0 PC.
Split evenly red and white production.
Most of the vineyards are found on higher elevation slopes around the town. Not to be confused with Côte de Beaune-Villages or Hautes Côtes de Beaune

175
Q

When was Pommard AOC awarded? For which style? Which grapes?

A

Awarded 1936 for red only.
White (P or S) - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Gris/Rosé (S);
Red (P).
0 GC and 28PC.

176
Q

What makes the terroir of Pommard unique within Côte de Beaune?

A

It has a high concentration of clay and active limestone (high lime content) which is more similar to that of Côte de Nuit. It improves soil structure and drainage and gives the vine more access to nutrients. It produces powerful robust wines.

177
Q

When was Volnay AOC awarded? For which style? Which grapes?

A

Awarded 1937 for red only.
White (P or S) - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Gris/Rosé (S);
Red (P).
0 GC and 29 PC.

178
Q

How does Volnay differ from Pommard?

A

It has less clay and more chalk, giving, generally, aromatic, soft, supple and silky wines. More tannic examples can be found near the border with Pommard.
Volnay wines have been recorded and sought after since the 1300’s

179
Q

When was Monthélie AOC awarded? For which style? Which grapes?

A

Awarded 1937 for dry white and red. (Mainly red).
White (P or S) - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Gris/Rosé (S);
Red (P).
0 GC and 15 PC.

180
Q

Describe Monthélie AOC.

A

Surrounded by Volnay, Meursault and Saint-Romain has been historically overlooked because it was mainly planted to Gamayin the 19th century. Occupies prime real-estate.

181
Q

When was Saint-Romain AOC awarded? For which style? Which grapes?

A

Awarded 1947 for dry white and red .
White (P or S) - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Gris/Rosé (S);
Red (P).
0 GC and 0 PC.
Split 1/3 red and 2/3 white

182
Q

Describe Saint-Romain AOC.

A

Set bach away from the main Côte in a side valley at high elevation no exposure to south or east. Results in whites with piercing acidity similar to young Chablis.
It is the smallest wine producing village of the Côte.

183
Q

When was Auxey-Duresses AOC awarded? For which style? Which grapes?

A

Awarded 1937 for dry white and red .
White (P or S) - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Gris/Rosé (S);
Red (P).
0 GC and 9 PC.
Split 2/3 red and 1/3 white

184
Q

Why does Auxey-Duresses lack fame?

A

It is located away from the main Côte. Prior to the AOC system it was marketed as Olnay, Meursault or Pommard.

185
Q

Which is the largest wine-producing village in the Côte d’Or?

A

Meursault with over 120 producers.

186
Q

When was Meursault AOC awarded? For which style? Which grapes?

A

Awarded 1937 for dry white and red .
White (P or S) - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Gris/Rosé (S);
Red (P).
0 GC and 19 PC.
Split 97% white - 1/4 PC level 3/4 Village level

187
Q

How many Grand Cru vineyards on the hill of Montrachet?

A

Total of 5:
Le Montrachet (shared);
Batard-Montrachet (shared);
Bienvenue-Batard-Montrachet;
Chevalier-Montrachet;
Criots-Batard-Montrachet.

188
Q

How are the vineyards shared?

A

Puligny-Montrachet:
Chevalier-Montrachet and Bienvenue-Batard-Montrachet;
Chassagne-Montrachet:
Criots-Batard-Montrachet
Shared:
Le Montrachet and Batard-Montrachet.

189
Q

What is Puligny-Montrachet claim to fame?

A

It possesses most of the Montrachet hill and also has more white-only Grand Crus than any other village in Bourgogne.

190
Q

When was Puligny-Montrachet AOC awarded? For which style? Which grapes?

A

Awarded 1937 for dry white and red .
White (P or S) - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Gris/Rosé (S);
Red (P).
4 GC (2 shared) and 17 PC

191
Q

When was Chassagne-Montrachet AOC awarded? For which style? Which grapes?

A

Awarded 1937 for dry white and red .
White (P or S) - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Gris/Rosé (S);
Red (P).
3 GC (2 shared) and 55 PC
66% white, 33% red.

192
Q

When was Blagny AOC awarded? For which style? Which grapes?

A

Awarded 1937 for red only.
White (P or S) - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Gris/Rosé (S);
Red (P).
0 GC (2 shared) and 7 PC

193
Q

Although Blagny AOC only makes red wines it also has white wine. How are these labelled?

A

Because Blagny straddles both Meursault and Puligny-Montrachet its village reds are labelled Blagny. Depending on where its grapes are grown, its white wines are labelled as Meursault-Blagny, Meursaultor Puligny-Montrachet.

194
Q

When was Santenay AOC awarded? For which style? Which grapes?

A

Awarded 1936 for dry white and red.
White (P or S) - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Gris/Rosé (S);
Red (P).
0 GC and 12 PC
Produces mainly red due to fertile soils. Yield managed by cordon pruning.

195
Q

When was Maranges AOC awarded? For which style? Which grapes?

A

Awarded 1989 for dry white and red.
White (P or S) - Chardonnay, (Pinot Blanc not permitted);
Gris/Rosé (S);
Red (P).
0 GC and 7 PC
Southern most appellation of the Côte de Beaune. Almost entirely red production.

196
Q

When was Côte de Beaune-Villages AOC awarded? For which style? Which grapes?

A

Awarded 1937 for red only.
White (P or S) - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Gris/Rosé (S);
Red (P).
0 GC and 0 PC
EXCLUSIVELY RED

197
Q

Which villages are not permitted to use the Côte de Beaune-Villages AOC labelling?

A

All villages can use it except for BEAUNE, ALOXE-CORTON, POMMARD AND VOLNAY.

198
Q

What is the aspect of Côte Chalonnaise vineyards?

A

Largely planted east-facing slopes however it is not a continuous escarpment like Côte de Nuits, so there are a varietyof exposures.

199
Q

What is the location of Côte Chalonnaise?

A

It lies south of the Côte de Beaune and north of the Maconnais. To the west lies Couchois and to the east the River Saône.

200
Q

What is the climate of Côte Chalonnaise?

A

It has a continental climate like the Côte d’Or. However the overall growing climate is slightly cooler because - not being a single ridge- it receives less shelter from the westerlies winds.

201
Q

What are the soils of the Côte Chalonnaise?

A

Limestone-rich marls as far south as Givry where it turns to older sandy marls of the Màconnais.

202
Q

What is the production split in Côte Chalonnaise?

A

Regional -50%
Village 50%
Half the production volume of Côte d’Or.
60% red wine.

203
Q

What are the regional AOCs of Chalonnaise?

A

Bourgogne AOC, Bourgogne + DGC, Crémant de Bourgogne, Bourgogne Mousseux, Côte Bourguignons.
DGCs are:
Bourgogne Côte Chalonnaise and Bourgogne Côtes du Couchois.

204
Q

Name the village AOCs of Côte Chalonnaise.

A

Bouzeron, Rully. Mercurey, Givry, Montagny.

205
Q

When was Bouzeron AOC awarded? For which styles? For which grapes? What is unique about it?

A

Awarded 1998 for dry white made from ALIGOTE ONLY. Any Pinot Noir or Chardonnay from here must be sold under a regional label.

206
Q

What is Rully best known for?

A

It produces twice as much Crémant as still wines. It was here that the first Crémant was made in 1822 using méthode traditionnelle. Crémant and mMosseux are mainstays of local wine industry.

207
Q

When was Rully AOC awarded? For which styles? For which grapes?

A

Awarded 1939 for dry white and red.
White (P or S) - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Gris/Rosé (S);
Red (P).
0 GC and 23 PC

208
Q

Which is the largest town in Chalonnaise?

A

Mercurey. It boasts the largest production, most of it red. 75% of production is at village level even though it has 32 Premier Crus. Many negociants have vineyards here.

209
Q

When was Mercurey AOC awarded? For which styles? For which grapes?

A

Awarded 1936 for dry white and red.( mostly red)
White (P or S) - Chardonnay;
Gris/Rosé (S) - Pinot Gris;
Red (P) - Pinot Noir.
0 GC and 32 PC

210
Q

When was Givry AOC awarded? For which styles? For which grapes?

A

Awarded 1946 for dry white and red.( mostly red)
White (P or S) - Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc;
Gris/Rosé (S) - Pinot Gris;
Red (P) - Pinot Noir.
0 GC and 38 PC

211
Q

How was Givry affected by Phylloxera?

A

Prior to phylloxera wines from Givry were highly sought after due to its long history of royal patronage. Replanting post-phylloxera was slow. It is recovering it prior dynamism.

212
Q

Which four villages make up Montagny AOC?

A

Buxy, Montagny-lés-Buxy, Jully-lés-Buxy and Saint-Vallerin.

213
Q

When was Montagny AOC awarded? For which styles? For which grapes?

A

Awarded 1936 for dry whites from Chardonnay only.
0 GC, 49 PC.

214
Q

Which Cave produces 65% of Montagny wines?

A

Cave des Vignerons de Buxy. It was one of the first cooperatives to pay for grapes based on quality rather than quantity.

215
Q

What is the production split in Côte Chalonnaise?

A

Mercurey -38%;
Rully -22%;
Montagny -19%;
Givry -18%;
Bouzeron - 3%.

216
Q

Why is the Maconnais the largest sub-region in Bourgogne in wine terms?

A

It has the largest area under vine and wine production.

217
Q

Where isthe Maconnais located?

A

It is south of Côte Chalonnaise and nourth of Beaujolais. To the west is the Grosne Valley and east is the Saône Valley.

218
Q

What is the climate of the Maconnais?

A

Like all of Bourgogne it is a continental climate. However it has Mediterranean influences.it has warmer, sunnier simmers and milder winters. The abundant results in riper grapes and fruitier aromas and flavours in wines.

219
Q

How does the landscape differ in Maconnais from the Côte d’Or etc.

A

It is gently undulating with broken hills unlike thise with more consistent escarpments.

220
Q

What are the main soils in Maconnais?

A

Limestone-rich marls - common to other parts of Bourgogne.

Granite and schist. These are found on the border with Beaujolais and the only area of Bourgogne where they are found.

221
Q

What is the main grape planted in Maconnais? What was the previous planting? When did this change?

A

Sincethe early 19th century, the main grape is Chardonnay. Until the late 18th century it was dominated by Gamay.

222
Q

How is the majority of production labelled from Maconnais?

A

80% is labelled as the regional appellation of Macon and under the Macon, Macon-Village, or Macon plus village name. It can also be sold as regional Bourgogne but not the other way round.

223
Q

What are the main village AOCs of Maconnais?

A

Pouilly-Fuisse AOC;
Pouilly-Loché AOC;
Pouilly-Vinzelles AOC;
Saint-Veran AOC;
Viré-Clessé AOC.

224
Q

What is a BIOHERM?

A

A reef-like mound of earth (limestone mainly) composed of dead sea creatures such as corals, starfish and mollusks.

225
Q

What are the bioherms of Maconnais?

A

Rock of Solutré, Rock of Vergisson and Mont de Pouilly. The soils are very similar to that of Côte d’Or.

226
Q

When was the AOC awarded to Pouilly-Fuissé? For which styles and grapes?

A

Awarded 1936 for dry white from Chardonnay. Wines are powerful and many are oaked.

227
Q

How many Premier Crus in Pouilly-Fuissé?

A

There are 22 climats ranked as Premier Crus representing 24% of the AOC. They are spread across the communes of Chaintre, Fuissé, Vergisson and Solutre-Pouilly

228
Q

When was the AOC awarded to Pouilly-Loché? For which styles and grapes?

A

Awarded 1940 for dry white from Chardonnay.

229
Q

When was the AOC awarded to Pouilly-Vinzelles? For which styles and grapes?

A

Awarded 1940 for dry white from Chardonnay.

230
Q

When was the AOC awarded to Saint-Veran? For which styles and grapes?

A

Awarded 1971 for dry white from Chardonnay. It was once a part of Beaujolais and sold as Beaujolais Blanc.

231
Q

When was the AOC awarded to Viré-Clessé? For which styles and grapes?

A

(Newest in Maconnais) - Awarded 1999 for dry white, semi-sweet white from Chardonnay.

232
Q

How is the sweet wine of Viré-Clessé determined?

A

Demi-sec - if R.S. is 0.4-0.8%(4-8g/l);
Levrouté - if R.S. is 0.8-1.8%(8-18g/l).
It is made from late harvest grapes.

233
Q

What are the production numbers in Maconnais:

A

Pouilly-Fuissé -38%;
Saint-Veran - 37%;
Viré-Clessé -22%;
Pouilly-Vinzelles/ Pouilly-Loché - 3% combined.