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EVIT: Chapter 18 - Respiratory > Mechanics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mechanics Deck (32)
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1
Q

define respiration

A

process of obtaining oxygen from environment & deliver to cells

2
Q

list the 4 phases of respiration

A
  1. pulmonary retaliation
  2. external exchange of gases
  3. gas transport
  4. internal exchange of gases
3
Q

define pulmonary ventilation

A

exchange air between atmosphere & air sacs

4
Q

define external exchange of gases

A

in lungs: O2 goes in blood & CO2 goes out

5
Q

define gas transport

A

moving substances in/within blood

6
Q

define internal exchange of gases

A

in body: CO2 moves to blood & O2 moves to cells

7
Q

what are the 2 phases of pulmonary ventilation

A

inspiration & exhalation

8
Q

define total lung volume

A

max amnt of air lungs can hold

9
Q

define tidal volume

A

amnt of air moved in/out of lungs w/each cycle

10
Q

define vital capacity

A

greatest volume of air that can be expelled from lungs after taking deepest possible breath

11
Q

define inspiratory reserve

A

amount of air able to be forcefully inhaled

12
Q

define expiratory reserve

A

amnt of air able to be forcefully exhaled

13
Q

define residual volume

A

amnt of air remaining in person’s lungs after full exhalation

14
Q

describe what happens to the diaphragm & lungs while inhaling

A

diaphragm contracts > lung volume increase + lung pressure decrease > air rushes in

15
Q

describe what happens to the diaphragm & lungs while exhaling

A

diaphragm relaxes > lung volume decrease + lung pressure increase > air rushes out

16
Q

define lung capacity

A

measure amnt of air able to be brought in & out lungs

17
Q

list the components of lung capacity

A
  • tidal volume
  • inspiratory reserve
  • expiratory reserve
  • vital capacity
  • residual volume
18
Q

define spirometry

A

test measuring effectiveness of pulmonary ventilation

19
Q

what 2 systems regulate respiration

A

nervous & chemical

20
Q

describe the nervous system’s regulation of breathing

A

involuntary breathing controlled by medulla oblongata & pons; brain also able to control voluntary breathing

21
Q

describe the chemical regulation of breathing

A

chemical receptors in brain stem & blood vessels monitor CO2 & increases breathing to lower CO2 levels

22
Q

normal respiration for adults

A

12-20

23
Q

normal respiration for newborns

A

30-50

24
Q

define hyperventilation

A

higher than normal amnt of air enters alveoli

25
Q

define hypoventilation

A

lower than normal amnt of air enters alveoli

26
Q

define hyperpnea

A

increase depth & rate of breathing

27
Q

define hypopnea

A

decrease depth & rate of air movement into lungs causing oxygen levels to drop in blood

28
Q

define tachypnea

A

abnormally fast breathing

29
Q

define apnea

A

temporary cessation of breathing

30
Q

define dyspnea

A

difficult/labored breathing

31
Q

define Cheyne-Stokes breathing

A

progressively deeper & sometimes faster breathing followed by gradual decrease & apnea that repeats in a cycle taking 30 sec-2 min

32
Q

define orthpnea

A

difficulty breathing