Fundamentals Unit Part 6 - Sparkling Wine Production Flashcards

1
Q

What are the two common ways of making sparkling wine in France?

A

1.Methode Ancestral;
2. Methode Champenoise. (Traditionelle).

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2
Q

What is the difference between Ancestral and Champenoise methods?

A

Champenoise involves two separate fermentations whereas the Ancestral involves a single fermentation which is paused for winer.

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3
Q

What problems are associated with the Ancestral method? (First problem)

A
  1. It was not possible to control the. fermentation (therefore the outcome) as there was no way to know how much sugar had fermented before the pause and whether any remained for the spring continuation of fermentation.
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4
Q

What problems are associated with the Ancestral method? (Second problem)

A

2.If the semi-fermented wine was put in a sealed bottle by springtime it was not possible to remove the dead yeast and therefore the wine would be gritty and cloudy.

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5
Q

What are the eleven steps in the Champenoise Method?

A
  1. Harvest grapes press quickly; 2. Chill and settle juice; 3. Base wine (vin clair)made (first fermentation); 4. MLF if required; 5. Blending (Assemblage) to make cuvee; 6. Bottling (Tirage), (Liquer de Tirage), and 2nd fermentation (Pris de Mousse); 7. Storage (Elevage sur lattes);8. Riddling (Remuage); 9. Disgorgement (Degorgement) of yeast; 10. Dosage (Liquer de Dosage/Expedition); 11. Bottle closure.
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6
Q

What is the optimal potential abv in grapes for use in champagne?

A

They should be between 9-11.5% as the process will add an additional amount in the second fermentation. They should also be fairly neutral to support the flavours which will develop.

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7
Q

Which are the three main grapes used for Champagne?

A

Chardonnay, Pinot Noir and Meunier.

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8
Q

What is “vin clair’?

A

The base wine made in the first fermentation.

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9
Q

Who is credited with the art of blending to maintain consistency and style of sparkling wine?

A

Dom Perignon.

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10
Q

What are the most comon vessels used for sparkling wine fermentations?

A

Stainless steel.

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11
Q

Why is MLF optional?

A

It will depend on the ripeness of the grapes and the acidity level required for balance.

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12
Q

What is the point of Assemblage?

A

Assemblage is the blending of teh base wines to create the house style and consistency of flavour from year to year. Reserves may be used.

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13
Q

How is rose champagne made?

A

Normlly by adding some pinot noir to the white cuvee. However some producers use the saignee method.

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14
Q

What is tirage and what is done at this stage?

A

Tirage is French for bottling. A mixture of wine yeast and sugar is added to initiate a second fermentation in the bottle.

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15
Q

What is “ pris de mousse”?

A

It translates as seize the foam which is the second fermentation and the creation of 4.9 to 6 atmospheres pressure in the wine and the sparkling.

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16
Q

Which stage demonstrates the difference between the two methods?

A

The addition of liquer de tirage guarantees a second fermentation unlike the random, uncertain nature of the ancestral process.

17
Q

What are lattes?

A

Lattes are thin pieces of wood used to separate the bottles during storage in the cellar. This is know as elevage sur lattes. The bottles is sealed with a crown cap and stored for circa 30 days for the fermentation.

18
Q

What creates the “sparkle”?

A

CO2 is a by product of fermentation and dissolves into the wine creating the bubbles> The longer the wine spends ageing the more the CO2 doissolves creating finer more delicate bubble.

19
Q

What flavour does the yeast give the wine? What is “sur lie”?

A

When they die they impart flavours of bread, brioche, freshly baked bread, toasted nuts. These are known as Autolytic flavours. “Sur lie” refers to teh wine being aged on the lees for a period of time.

20
Q

What is the purpose of Riddling/Remuage?

A

It is a process whereby the stored bottles are turned from horizontal to vertical by turning by 1/8th each day until all of the lees are gathered in the neck.

21
Q

Who is said to have initiated the riddling process?

A

Widow Cliquot - Barbe Nicole Ponsardin

22
Q

What is a “pupitre”? A Gyropalette?

A

It is an A-shaped rack used for the riddling/remuage. Nowadays this is automated into a mechanised storage process which completes the riddling in about 1 week.

23
Q

Why is disgorgement/ degorgement necessary?

A

It is necessary to remove the dead yeast cells from the wine. It is done by freezing the neck and removing the plug of yeast. The traditional method of removing without freezing is still done by some estates.(a la volee)

24
Q

What is “transversage”?

A

Whilst most standard 750ml bottles have been second fermented in the bottles they are served from, larger and smaller bottles are filled from disgorged 750ml bottles

25
Q

What is liqueur de dosage/expedition used for?

A

Wine which is lost in disgorgement is replaced with a top up of wine. This can be the same wine (Brut Nature), or a sugar and reserve wine mixture to adjust the sweetness level in the finished product.

26
Q

What happens to the wine after the cork is inserted?

A

It will be stored to allow integartion of the liqueur de dosage into the wine.

27
Q

What can happpen to champagne corks over time?

A

They can deteriorate. The cork expands to a mushroom shape when released “ young “ - (Jupone), however over time an older cork will become peg-shaped - (Cheville).

28
Q

Which other types of sparkling wine are made in France?

A

Cremant, Mousseux and Petillant.

29
Q

What are the requirements for champagne?

A

15 months in cellar from tirage until release, including 12 months on lees for NV. Vintage - 3 years in cellar with at least 12 months on lees. Circa 6 ATMs of pressure.

30
Q

What are the requirements for Cremant?

A

Basic - 9 months on lees with additional time for integration of dosage. Same pressure as champagne.

31
Q

What are the requirements for Mousseux?

A

Means frothy or bubbly but has no set minimum ageing requirements. Min 3 ATMs of pressure.

32
Q

What is Petillant?

A

Petillant means fizzy. No reqts other than minimum 1-2.5 ATMs of pressure.

33
Q

What is “Pet Nat”?

A

It is a petillant made by the ancestral method.

34
Q

Describe the pet nat method which results in sediment in the final wine.

A

Partially fermented must is chilled and bottled to produce a lightly sparkling wine with RS and sediment

35
Q

Describe the pet nat method which results in NO sediment in the final wine.

A

Partially fermented must is bottled with yeast and then disgorged after 2-3 months ageing. Delicately sparkling, sweet wine with no sediment.