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Flashcards in Carbohydrates Deck (27)
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0
Q

Many carbs function in the body not as fuel but as communication devices.
True or False; explain.

A

True. Example: sugars that are found on the surface of our cells enable our cells to recognize and interact with each other.

1
Q

Explains the term “resistant starch.

A

A small percentage of the starches digested resists breakdown in the small intestine and gets scooped up by bacteria in the large intestine.

2
Q

True/False:

Carbs come from plant sources because they are produced by photosynthesis.

A

True; they provide both an immediate and time-released energy source.

3
Q

What do carbs help to regulate?

A

The metabolism of of their fellow macronutrients - fat & protein.

4
Q

There is evidence that a diet too low in carbs an make insulin less effective. What does this mean?

A

This destabilizes our blood sugar levels.

5
Q

What are the two main categories if carbs?

A

Free sugars and polysaccharides.

6
Q

Name 4 subcategories of free sugars

A

Monosaccharides,
Disaccharides,
Oligosaccharides,
Sugar Alcohols

7
Q

Name the 3 subcategories of Polysaccharides.

A

Starches,
Hemicelluloses,
Celluloses

8
Q

Which hormones are important in sugar metabolism? (2)

A

Adrenalin and insulin.

9
Q

Two discoveries about carbs that have changed nutritional thinking about their role in health. Explain.

A
  1. “Resistant Starches” food for friendly bacteria in the large intestine (similar to oligosaccharides)
  2. Gycobiology
    Many cars have a communicative function and don’t serve the body as fuel
10
Q

Catalysts which prompt macronutrients to interact (4)

A

Vitamins, minerals, enzymes, water

11
Q

List the 3 types of carbs:

A

Sugars: simple carbs (mono- and disaccharides)
Starches: complex carbs
Fibre

12
Q

What is galactose?

A

Milk sugar, is produced during the digestion of lactose and is absorbed at a similar rate to glucose.

13
Q

Describe these disaccharides and list the enzyme that is used to break it down.
Lactose
Sucrose
Maltose

A

Lactose: enzyme: lactase; animal origin, consists of 1 glucose + 1 galactose

Sucrose: enzyme: sucrase; common white sugar, 1 glucose + 1 fructose

Maltose: enzyme: maltase; produced during breakdown of starches

14
Q

Over consumption of sugar is liked to malnutrition, tooth decay, hypoglycemia, diabetes, obesity, cholesterol issues, hyperactivity, learning dysfunctions. (No answer)

A

Fact

15
Q

Glycogen (animal starch) synthesized in human liver and in muscle tissue from glucose providing an immediate source of energy when needed.

A

True

16
Q

What is fibre?

A

Indigestible polysaccharides, is a portion of plants which cannot be broken down by human enzymes or digestive juices.

17
Q

Types of fiber. Explain.

A

Soluble fibre: dissolves in water and includes pectins, gums, and mucilages.

Insoluble fibre: does not dissolve in water and includes hemicellulose and lignin

18
Q

“Low-fibre diets are associated with constipation, GI disorders, diverticulosis, and colon cancer, while a high-fibre diet may prevent these problems.” Explain two drawbacks of using bran as a source of fibre.

A
  1. Bran can’t be digest an might irritate the bowel.

2. During digestion, phytic acid is produced, which interferes with digestive juices and the absorption of nutrients.

19
Q

What is the minimum intake listed for our carbohydrate needs?

A

According to the RDA 130 g/day. The IOM recommends a minimum of 180 g for women ad 200 g for men.

20
Q

Many of the carbohydrate foods contain essential XXX and XXX as well as the dietary XXX necessary for colon health and proper elimination.”

A
  1. Vitamins
  2. Minerals
  3. Fibre
21
Q

Explain why the over consumption of refunded, processed carbs can lead to episodes of “carbohydrate depression” and “carbohydrate addiction”. Explain why complex carbs don’t have the same effect.

A

Complex carbs take longer to digest and won’t spike the blood sugar levels, keeping you satisfied for longer - vs. craving more or having a crash after eating refined carbs.

22
Q

What are the authors recommendations for someone who earths a high-carb diet (55% - 70% carbs)?

A

If you are eating this yet you should he consuming foods high in fibre an low on the glycemic index scale. Eat whole foods, unprocessed and high in fibre.

23
Q

Explain the digestion process if the following sugars in the small intestine: maltose, sucrose, lactose.

A

Maltose: (from cereals, grains) gets broke down in the small intestine by maltase, turning it into glucose (absorbed by the intestinal wall then transported to the liver)

sucrose: (white sugar, maple syrup) broken down in s.i. By sucrase, turning into glucose + fructose

Lactose: (dairy) broken down in s.i. By lactase, turning into glucose + galactose

24
Q

List the organs along the digestive trace that are responsible for starch digestion and name the enzymes involved.

A

Mouth - saliva
Pancreas - amylase
Small intestine - maltase

25
Q

Explain how the liver regulates carbohydrate metabolism. Include the toe processed: lipogenesis and lipolysis.

A

The liver converts excess carbs into glycogen that gets sisters in the liver or muscles for later use (has to be turned into glucose before use). If the storage a are full, the liver turns carbs into fatty acids, the into triglycerides that can be stored as body fat. Term = lipogenesis!
When body fat gets burned, it turns back into fatty acids to fuel the body. Term = lipolysis!

26
Q

Describe how the body attempts to maintain a steady blood sugar level when there is little or no intake of carbohydrates.

A

Please research answer!