2017 Anatomy Revision Flashcards Preview

2017 Anatomy Revision > 2017 Anatomy Revision > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2017 Anatomy Revision Deck (84):

Which arteries supply the thorax posteriorly, laterally and medially?

Posteriorly: intercostal arteries
Laterally: lateral thoracic arteries
Medially: internal thoracic arteries


What are the 4 points of surface anatomy of the heart?



Going anti-clockwise around the ear, what is the nerve supply?



External acoustic meatus
1. Structure?
2. Which way do you pull the pinna in adults to see the EAM?
3. Which way do you pull the pinna in children to see the EAM?

1. Cartilagenous laterally and bony medially
2. Adults: postero-superiorly
3. Children: postero-inferiorly


What are the 3 sections of the tympanic membrane?

Ectoderm: skin
Mesoderm: connective tissue
Endoderm: respiratory mucosa


1. What is the sensory nerve supply of the nasopharynx?
2. What is the sesnsory nerve supply of the oropharynx?
3. What is the sensory nerve supply of the laryngopharynx?

1. Nasopharynx: CN9 and 5b
2. Oropharynx: CN9
3. Laryngopharynx: CN9 and CN10


What are the 3 middle ear ossicles called?

1. Malleus
2. Incus
3. Stapes


What are the 2 middle ear muscles called?

Tensor tympani


What is behind these middle ear walls:
1. Superior wall?
2. Medial wall?
3. Anterior wall?
4. Inferior wall?
5. Posterior wall?

1. Superior wall: brain
2. Medial wall: cochlea
3. Anterior wall: internal carotid artery
4. Inferior wall: internal jugular vein
5. Posterior wall: mastoid air sinus


1. Explain the lobes and fissures of the right lung
2. Explain the lobes and fissures of the left lung

1. Right lung: superior,middle and inferior lobe
Oblique and horizontal fissure
2. Left lung: superior and inferior lobe
Oblique fissure


Name 7 relations and impressions on the right lung

Rib one
Impression for diaphragm
Brachiocephalic vein
Azygous vein
Superior vena cava
Inferior vena cava


Name 8 relations and impressions on the left lung

Rib one
Impression for diaphragm
Brachiocephalic vein
Cardiac impression
Aortic arch
Descending aorta
Subclavian artery


1. What is the nerve supply for the mediastinal and diaphragmatic pleura?
2. What is the nerve supply for the costal pleura?

1. Phrenic= C3,4,5
2. Intercostal nerves


1. Define pneumothorax
2. Define tension pneumothorax
3. Define haemothorax
4. How would you do a chest drain for air and for fluid?

1. Air/fluid in pleural cavity
2. Air keeps entering and cant escape, and the trachea is pushed to 1 side
3. Blood in pleural cavity
4. 5th/6th ICS MAL
Up for air and down for fluid


Name the surface markings for the following things:
1. Apex
2. Right lung
3. Left lung
4. Oblique fissure
5. Horizontal fissure
6. Pleura

1. Apex: 2cm above medial 1/3 of clavicle
2. Right lung: ribs 2,4,6cc,6,8,10
3. Left lung: ribs 2,4, cardiac notch, 6,8,10
4. Oblique fissure: T3-6CC
5. Horizontal fissure: 4CC- oblique fissure
6. Pleura: 12th rib or lower


1. Which nerves are between the trachea and the oesophagus?
2. Where does the trachea start?
3. Where does the trachea bifurcate?
4. Where does the trachea enter the hilium?
5. What is the nerve supply?
6. What is the front and back of the trachea made of?

1. Recurrent laryngeal nerves
2. C6
3. T4
4. T5/T6
5. CNX and sympathetic
6. Front is an incomplete ring of hyaline cartilage
Back is the trachealis muscle


1. Which lobes of the right lung are relevant in a supine position?
2. Which lobes of the left lung are relevant in a supine position?

1. Apical basal and posterior basal
2. Apical basal and posterior basal


1. What does the left vagus nerve pass in front of?
2. What does the left recurrent laryngeal nerve hook around?
3. What does the right recurrent laryngeal nerve hook around?

1. Arch of aorta
2. Around the arch
3. Around the right subclavian artery


1. What is the transverse sinus useful for?
2. Where is the transverse sinus?
3. Where is the oblique sinus?

1. Clamps arterial outflow during surgery
2. Between arterial and venous ends of the heart tube
3. Posterior to heart, between parietal and visceral pericardium


Right coronary artery
What are the 5 branches and what does each one supply?

1. SA node artery = R + L atrium
2. Anterior ventricular arteries
3. Marginal artery = reaches apex
4. Posterior IV artery = AV node and posterior 1/3 of septum
5. Conus artery


Left coronary artery
What are the 3 branches and what does each one supply?

1. SA node artery = R + L atrium
2. Circumflex artery = LA + LV
3. Anterior IV artery = RV + LV + anterior 2/3 of septum


What is the heart surface anatomy?

3RCC lateral to sternum
2LCC lateral to sternum
5LICS half way medial to mid-clavicular line
6RCC lateral to sternum


Valve auscultation
1. Aortic valve?
2. Pulmonary valve?
3. Mitral valve?
4. Tricuspid valve?

1. Aortic = 2 RICS
2. Pulmonary = 2 LICS
3. Mitral = 5 LICS MCL
4. Tricuspid = 4/5 LICS


What is the sympathetic supply of the heart and what does this cause?

Referred pain


Explain the basic arterial supply of the upper limb

Brachial (and profunda brachii)
Radial and ulnar
Palmar arches


Explain the basic arterial supply of the lower limb

Femoral (and profunda femoris)
Anterior tibial and posterior tibial (and peroneal)
Plantar arch (and dorsalis pedis)


1. What type of joint is the acromioclavicular joint and what supplies it?
2. What type of joint is the sternoclavicular joint and what supplies it?
3. What 2 things would happen after a dislocation?
4. What happens in a clavicular fracture and what nerve is vulnerable?

1. Synovial plane joint: C4
2. Synovial ball and socket joint: C6
3. AC ligaments weaken and the acromion becomes prominent
4. Post displacement of lateral 1/3 of clavicle
Suprascapular nerve is vulnerable


1. A fracture in the neck would damage which nerve?
2. A fracture in the midshaft would damage which nerve?
3. A fracture in the supraepicondylar ridges would damage which nerve/artery?

1. Axillary nerve
2. Radial nerve
3. All nerves and arteries


Shoulder joint
1. What type of joint is it?
2. What is the glenoid fossa like?
3. What is the glenoid labrum and what does it do?
4. What is there for protection?
5. What is the coracoacromial arch made of?

1. Synovial ball and socket
2. Shallow
3. Fibrocartilage rim that deepens the socket and stabilises the joint
4. Bursa
5. Acromion and coracoacromial ligament


Shoulder joint
1. What does the coracoacromial arch prevent?
2. Which nerves supply the shoulder joint?
3. Where is referred pain?
4. When is the coracoacromial arch disrupted?

1. Superior dislocation
2. C5 + C6
3. Proximal and lateral arm
4. Acromioclavicular joint dislocation


Glenohumeral joint
1. Dislocation makes which nerve vulnerable?
2. What direction is the dislocation usually?
3. Which direction does it end up in?
4. What becomes most lateral?

1. Axillary nerve
2. Anterior
3. Inferior
4. Acromion most lateral


Elbow joint
1. Which nerve is vulnerable at the medial epicondyle of the humerus?
2. Which nerve is vulnerable at the top of the ulna?
3. In a fracture if the elbow joint, which arteries are vulnerable and which nerves are vulnerable?

1. Ulnar nerve
2. Brachial artery and median nerve
3. Brachial artery
Ulnar, median and radial nerves


Elbow joint
1. What are the 2 ligaments at the elbow joint?
2. What 2 movements can the elbow joint do and what is the supply for each?

1. Lateral collateral ligament
Medial collateral ligament
2. Flexion = C5-6
Extension = C7-8


Posterior pectoral girdle muscles
1. What are the 4 muscles and what are each innervated by?
2. Which nerve is vulnerable in the neck?
3. What 2 effects would a lesion here cause?

1. Trapezius: CN11
Latissimus dorsi: C6-8 + thoracodorsal nerve
Levator scapulae: C4-5 + dorsal scapular nerve
Rhomboid minor and major: C4-5 + dorsal scapular nerve

2. CN11
3. Cant laterally rotate scapula
Cant lift arm


Anterior pectoral girdle muscles
Pectoralis major
1. Sternocostal head is innervated by which nerves?
2. Clavicular head is innervated by which nerves?
3. 3 roles of this muscle?

1. C8-T1
Medial pectoral nerve
2. C5-C7
Lateral pectoral nerve
3. Adducts
Medially rotates
Accessory breathing muscles


Anterior pectoral girdle muscles
Pectoralis minor
1. Innervation?
2. 1 role?

1. C8-T1
2. Depresses scapula


Anterior pectoral girdle muscles
Serratus anterior
1. Innervation?
2. 2 roles?
3. When is this nerve vulnerable?
4. What does damage to this lead to?

1. C5-C7
Long thoracic nerve
2. Protects scapula
Holds scapula close to thoracic wall
3. Axillary surgery/trauma/compression
4. Cant fix scapula against thoracic wall so cant lift arm


1. Innervation?
2. Which 2 situations is this nerve vulnerable?
3. Name 4 roles
4. Loss of deltoid will have what 4 effects?

1. C5-6
Axillary nerve
2. Shoulder dislocation and fracture in the neck of the humerus
3.flexion, extension, abduction and shunting
4. Regimental badge anaesthesia
Cant abduct shoulder
Weak flexion
Weak lateral rotation


Rotator cuff muscles
1. What are the 4 muscles?
2. Innervation?
3. Name 4 roles
4. What is the other muscle that is there? Innervation and 2 roles?

1. Infraspinatus
Teres minor
2. Suprascapular nerve, subscapular nerve and axillary nerve
3. Lateral rotators, medial rotator, initiates abduction and stabilises humeral head
4. Teres major, Lower subscapular nerve, medial rotator and adductor


Rotator cuff muscles
1. Innervation?
2. Overall role?
3. What does injury lead to?

1. C5-6
2. Stabilise shoulder joint
3. Shoulder instability


Anterior arm muscles
1. Innervation?
2. What are the 2 muscles called?

1. Musculocutaneous nerve
2. Biceps brachii and brachialis


Anterior arm muscles
Biceps brachii
1. Biceps tendon and aponeurosis protect which artery and nerve?
2. Name 3 roles?
3. No attachment where?

4. Role?

Biceps brachii
1. Brachial artery and median nerve
2. Flexes elbow, supinates forearm, long head flexes shoulder 30 degrees
3. No humeral attachment

4. Flexes elbow


Posterior arm muscles
Triceps brachii
1. Name 2 roles
2. What are its 3 heads?
3. What 2 other things with this muscle causes spaces?
4. What are the 2 spaces called?

1. Shoulder and elbow extension
2. Long, medial and lateral head
3. Humerus and teres major
4. Quadrangular space and Triangular interval


Triceps brachii 3 heads, humerus and teres major
1. What goes through the quadrangular space?
2. What goes through the triangular interval?

1. Axillary nerve and posterior circumflex artery
2. Radial nerve and profunda brachii artery


Brachial plexus
1. What is the plexus's journey?
2. What are the 5 sections called?
3. What are the front 3 branches called? Left to right
4. What are the back 2 branches called? Left to right

1. Neck to axilla to branches given off
2. Roots, trunks, divisions, cords, branches
3. Musculocutaneous nerve, median nerve and ulnar nerve
4. Axillary nerve and radial nerve


Brachial plexus
What innervation are the following responsible for:
1. Musculocutaneous nerve
2. Median nerve
3. Ulnar nerve
4. Axillary nerve
5. Radial nerve

1. C5-7
2. C5-T1
3. C8-T1
4. C5-6
5. C5-T1


Explain the blood supply to the arm

(Rich anastomoses)
Anterior and posterior circumflex
Profunda brachii


What are the meningeal layers starting from the spinal cord?

Spinal cord
Pia mater
Sub-arachnoid space
Arachnoid mater
Sub-dural space
Dura mater
Epidural space


1. Where does the spinal cord terminate in adults?
2. Where does the spinal cord terminate in children?
3. What is the cauda equina and what does it supply?

1. L1-2
2. L3-4
3. Collection of lumbar and sacral spinal nerves that supply lower limbs, pelvic floor and urinary and anal sphincters


Where would you do a lumbar puncture and how would you do it differently in children?

Line joining highest points of iliac crest
1-2 vertebral levels lower in children


Explain the 5 stages of IV disc prolapse and state which nerve it would effect

1. Normal
2. Degeneration/leakage
3. Protrusion (prolapse)
4. Herniation (extrusion)
5. Sequestration

Effects nerve of IV foramen one level below


Name 4 possible symptoms of cauda equina syndrome

Weakness of pelvic floor
Weakness of anal and urinary sphincters
Loss of bladder function
Lower limb sensory loss/changes


In a fracture or dislocation at the elbow, which nerves are vulnerable?

All 3 main nerves


Wrist joint
1. What type of joint is it?
2. What 3 ligaments are present?
3. What 4 movements can happen?
4. Define Bennett fracture
5. Define Colles fracture
6. Define Smiths fracture
7. What happens after either Colles fracture or Smiths fracture?

1. Synovial condyloid joint
2. Medial collateral ligament, lateral collateral ligament and radiocarpal ligament
3. Flexion, extension abduction and adduction
4. Bennett: fracture of base of 1st MC bone that extends into CMC joint
5. Colles: radius goes backwards
6. Smiths: radius goes forward
7. 6 weeks in plaster, loss of wrist and distal radioulnar movements, stiff MCP joints


Anterior forearm compartments
1. What 4 muscles is the first layer made of?
2. What muscle is the second layer?
3. What 3 muscles is the third layer made of?

1. Pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, palmaris longus
2. Flexor digitorum superficialis
3. Flexor digitorum profundus, flexor pollicis longus and pronator quadratus


Anterior forearm compartments
Layer 1 = PT, FCR, FCU,PL
1. Origin?
2. Innervation?
3. All median nerve except which one? What innervates that one?
4. What 6 things do these muscles do?

1. Medial epicondyle
2. C7-8
3. FCU= ulnar nerve
4. Flexion of wrist and digits
Wrist stabilise
Wrist abduction
Wrist adduction


Anterior forearm compartments
Layer 2= FDS
Layer 3= FDP, FPL, PQ
1. All supplied by which nerve?
2. What is the exception and what is supplied by?

1. Median nerve (C7-8)
2. FDP to digits 4 + 5
Which is supplied by ulnar nerve


Posterior forearm compartments
1. What are the 3 muscles of the superficial layer?
2. What are the 5 muscles of the deep layer?
3. What is the other posterior forearm muscle?

1. Extensor carpi radialis, extensor carpi ulnaris and extensor digitorum
2. Supinator, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor indicis
3. Brachioradialis


Posterior forearm muscles
Superficial layer
1. Origin?
2. Innervation?
3. Name 4 roles

1. Lateral epicondyle
2. Radial nerve C6-8
3. Extension of wrist and digits
Stabilises wrist
Wrist abduction
Wrist adduction


Posterior forearm muscles
Deep layer
1. Innervation?
2. Name 4 roles

1. Radial nerve C7-8
2. Supinator
Thumb abductor
Thumb adductor
Index finger extension (at MCP joint)


Posterior forearm muscles
1. Innervation?
2. Name 2 roles

1. Radial nerve C5-6
2. Flexes elbow
Shunt muscle (resists varus forces)


Radial nerve palsy
1. What are the 2 functional effects?
2. Where is there sensory loss?
3. Where would you test over?
4. What fracture can cause this?

1. Dropped wrist and no extension of digits
2. Sensory loss over dorsolateral hand (back of thumb)
3. Test over first dorsal interosseous muscle
4. Lateral epicondyle fracture


Cubital fossa
1. What are the 3 boundaries?
2. What is inside the cubital fossa?
3. What 2 things is it covered by?
4. What 3 things happen in a median nerve injury within here?

1. Superior border between epicondyles
Medial border of brachioradialis
Lateral border of pronator teres
2. Brachial artery, median nerve and median cubital vein
3. Biceps aponeurosis and deep fascia
4. Hand of benediction when you try to make a fist
No pronation
Weak wrist flexion that pulls to the ulnar side


Anatomical snuffbox
1. What borders it nearer to the thumb?
2. What borders it further to the thumb?
3. What 2 things go through it?

1. Extensor pollicis brevis and abductor pollicis longus
2. Extensor pollicis longus
3. Radial artery and cephalic vein


What are the 4 types of hand muscles?

Interossei muscles
Lumbrical muscles


Hand muscles
1. Thenar: innervation and 3 roles?
2. Hypothenar: innervation and 3 roles?
3. Interossei muscles: innervation and 2 types?
4. Lumbrical muscles: what does it flex and what does it extend?
5. Lumbrical muscles: innervation of first 2 and last 2 fingers?

1. Thenar = median nerve
Thumb flexion, abduction and opposition
2. Hypothenar = ulnar nerve
5th digit flexion, abduction and opposition
3. Interossei muscles = ulnar nerve
Palmar adduct + dorsal abduct
4. Lumbrical muscles = flexes MCP joints and extends interphalangeal joints
5. Lumbrical muscles = first 2 is median nerve and last 2 is ulnar nerve


Carpal tunnel
1. Formed by what 2 things?
2. What 4 bones are involved?
3. Which nerve can become compressed?
4. What sensory loss accompanies this?

1. Carpal bones and flexor retinaculum
2. Pisiform, hamate, scaphoid, trapezium
3. Median nerve
4. Sensory loss: palmar and digits 1-3.5


Ulnar nerve at wrist
1. Passes superficially to what?
2. An ulnar nerve lesion in the hands can cause what sensory loss?
3. Motor loss will effect what 4 things? What is this known as?

1. Carpal tunnel
2. Ulnar 1.5 digits
3. Hypothenar muscles, medial 2 lumbricals, all interossei and adductor pollicis brevis
"Ulnar claw hand"


Nerve distribution at hand
1. Where would you test for radial nerve?
2. Where would you test for median nerve?
3. Where would you test for ulnar nerve?

1. Back of thumb (dorsolateral hand)
2. Front of hand digits 2 + 3
3. Back of hand 5th digit


If brachial artery supply is lost suddenly at the elbow, what can happen in the anterior forearm?

Volkmann's ischaemic contractures of deep flexors


Give the method for an intramuscular injection

Vertical line through highest point of iliac crest
Line from PSIS to greater trochanter


1. Name the hip flexor
2. Name the 5 adductors (medial compartment)
3. Name the 5 muscles in the anterior compartment
4. Name the 3 muscles in the posterior compartment

1. iliopsoas
2. Pectineus, adductor longus, gracilis, adductor magnus and adductor brevis
3. Tensor fascia lata, sartorius, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis
4. Semi-membranosus, semi-tendinosus and biceps femoris


Muscles of the thigh
1. Innervation of hip flexor (iliopsoas)?
2. Innervation of medial compartment (adductors)?
3. Innervation of the anterior compartment?

1. L1-2
2. Obturator nerve L2-4
3. Femoral nerve L3-4


Arterial trunk for the lower limb
List the origin of the femoral artery

Common iliac
R/L external iliac


Lower limb
1. Which bone is the medial malleolus on?
2. What passes anteriorly to the medial malleolus?
3. Which bone is the lateral malleolus on?
4. What passes posteriorly to the lateral malleolus?

1. Tibia
2. Great saphenous vein
3. Fibula
4. Short saphenous vein


Leg compartments
1. Anterior compartment: artery/nerve/function?
2. Posterior compartment: artery/nerve/function?
3. Lateral compartment: nerve/function?

1. Anterior compartment
Anterior tibial artery/deep peroneal nerve
Dorsiflexors and invertors of foot + extensors of digits

2. Posterior compartment
Posterior tibial artery/tibial nerve
Plantarflexors and invertors of foot + flexors of digits

3. Lateral compartment
Superficial peroneal nerve
Evertors of foot


Cruciate ligaments
1. Which condyles link with which cruciate ligaments?
2. Which one is taught in extension?
3. Which one is taught in flexion?

1. Lateral condyle
Anterior cruciate
Medial condyle
Posterior cruciate
2. ACL
3. PCL


Collateral ligaments
1. Which one attaches to the tibia?
2. Which one attaches to the fibula?
3. What does MCL prevent?
4. What does LCL prevent?

1. Medial collateral ligament
2. Lateral collateral ligament
3. Tibial abduction
4. Tibial adduction


What is the anastamoses of the knee composed of?

Circumflex femoral


Which muscle unlocks the knee?



Anterior compartment of leg
1. Name the 3 muscles
2. Innervation?
3. Which nerve is at risk at the head of fibula?

1. Tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum, extensor hallucis
2. Deep peroneal nerve
3. Common peroneal nerve


Posterior compartment of leg
1. Name the 5 muscles
2. Innervation?

1. Gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum, flexor hallucis
2. Tibial nerve


Lateral compartment of leg
1. Name the 2 muscles
2. Innervation?

1. Peroneus longus, peroneus brevis
2. Superficial peroneal nerve


Popliteal fossa
1. What are the 4 borders?
2. Whats inside the popliteal fossa?

1. Semi-membranosus and semi-tendinosus
Biceps femoris
Gastrocnemius (medial head)
Gastrocnemius (lateral head)
2. Popliteal artery
Popliteal vein (with short saphenous vein)
Tibial nerve (with common peroneal nerve)