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What does the lymphatic system include?

Lymph, lymphatic vessels, lymphatic tissue, lymphatic nodules/nodes, tonsils, spleen, thymus gland.

1

3 things lymph system does (important.)

Fluid balance - return of excess interstitial fluid to blood.

Absorption of fats (chyle) from digestive system (lacteals.)

Immunological defense.

2

Lymph nodes filter _______

Lymph.

3

Spleen filters ______.

Spleen filters blood.

4

Lymphatic capillaries - location, structure, and function.

Location - throughout body except CNS, bone marrow, tissues without blood vessels, etc.
Structure - blind beginning.
Function: pick up excess ISF (10%).

5

Larger lymphatic vessels - structure and functions.

Structure - resemble small veins.
Functions - conduct lymph through lymph nodes for filtering.
Return lymph to blood. Where? Left and right subclavian veins.

6

Excess interstitial fluid causes _______.

Edema.

7

Aids to return blood to lymph. Why?

High permeability of lymph capillaries and valves in larger lymphatics.

8

What are some physiological aids to return lymph to blood?

Contraction of smooth muscle in lymphatic vessels.
Skeletal muscle contraction.
Lower pressure in thoracic region.

9

Lymphatic nodules - structure.

Groups of lymphocytes (WBC's) (no capsule) and macrophages.

10

Lymphatic nodules - locations.

Tonsils, beneath digestive (Peyer patches), respiratory,and urinary mucosa.

11

Lymphatic nodules - functions.

Filter lymph.

12

Lymph modes - location.

Along Lymphatic vessels. Groups in cervical, axillary, and inguinal regions.

13

Lymph nodes - structure.

Fibrous capsule and trabeculae (internal skeleton.)
Afferent (incoming) and efferent (outgoing) lymphatics.
Lymphocytes and macrophages (phagocytosis.)

14

Lymph nodes - functions

Produce and house lymphocytes.

Filter lymph via macrophages.

15

Spleen - structure (type, not pulp.)

Fibrous capsule, smooth muscle.

16

Spleen - ____ pulp and _____ pulp.

White pulp - surrounds the arteries.

Red pulp - surrounds the vein.

17

Spleen - functions.

Production of lymphocytes - WBC's detect and respond to foreign invaders.
Destruction of old RBC's.
Does NOT filter lymph, filters BLOOD.
sympathetic stimulation causes spleen to release blood into circulation.

18

What happens if the spleen is lost?

(You call the missing persons department.) okay, just kidding. The liver takes over and so do other lymph tissues.

19

Thymus gland - location.

Superior mediastinum; deep to manubrium at sternum.

20

Structure of thymus

Youth - lymphatic tissue.
Adults - mostly fibrous and fatty.

21

Thymus gland - grows to age _ and decreases after age __.

Grows to age 1, decreases after age 60.

22

Function of the thymus gland.

Secretes hormone thymosine.

23

Immunity - definition.

Study of resistance to disease.

24

Some different disease causing agents.

Pathogenic bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, cancers, toxins(chemicals.)

25

Innate immunity (nonspecific defense.) definition.

It fights all foreign invaders equally. It recognizes foreign invaders but that ability doesn't change.

26

Physical barriers of innate immunity -

Keratin of skin.
Mucus membranes, cilia.
Tear, saliva, urine.
Coughing, sneezing.

27

Chemical mediators of innate immunity.

Tears (lysozyme.)
Sebaceous glands (sebum.)
Mucus.
Gastric juice.

28

Chemical mediators - complement.

20 proteins, activated by foreign invaders or by antibodies. Cause inflammation, promote phagocytosis, and lyse (rupture) of bacteria.

29

Chemical mediators - interfero

Proteins produced by cells infected by viruses. It does not save the cell..it dies, but sends a message saying what it happening so that others are saved.