2.2 e), f) Roles of non-legal bodies/measures in promoting/enforcing HR Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.2 e), f) Roles of non-legal bodies/measures in promoting/enforcing HR Deck (37):

What do NGOs do to promote/enforce HR?

raise awareness of HR issues in the world community, placing pressure on regimes which may abuse HR and other nations that are perceived to be upholders of HR (Eg. US has death penalty still)


What do humanitarian bodies like the Red Cross and World Vision do?

highlight humanitarian issues and encourage direct action by citizens through donations to alleviate HR issues.


What does HR Watch (since approximately when) do?

approx. 1988:
produces detailed reports on HR abuses, compiles an annual report reporting HR abuses globally.


What does HR Watch depend on?

more wealthy individual donors than Amnesty.


What do NGOs play a huge role in?

protecting the interest of victims of HR violations, provide assistance, conduct research and lobby govs, incl. UN to consider legislation.


Why are NGOs created?`

When interested individuals perceive a need which isn't being met


Why are NGOs so essential?

NGOs help ensure greater government compliance by investigating, researching, documenting and publicizing cases of human rights violations.


When was Amnesty International formed and what does it do?

in 1961:
targets large countries where lots of info is available, 'naming and shaming them'


By Amnesty International's targeting of large countries where lots of info is available what does it mean for smaller dictatorships and countries involved in civil war?

their abuses of rights are given less attention.
Amnesty admits this, but says they feel they can make a bigger difference in the countries they're currently focused on.


What could be a possible -ve to Amnesty International?

It targets nations/HR Abuses based on donor interest, meaning the WORST violations might not be addressed.


What is Amnesty International's strength?

Its numbers, has approx. 3 million members.


Why have NGOs been effective in promoting and enforcing HR?

They can provide unbiased, independent information to the UN, in contrast to nations which may give biased info instead.


What is a significant factor that affects the effectiveness of NGOs?

The info they report to the UN and international organisations has been informal, requires a more formal recognition to improve their positive impact.


Why has there been an increase in the no. of NGOs overtime?

Due to the evolving concept of HR, more NGOs concerned with HR have increased.


What were NGOs instrumental in establishing?

The UN charter and International Bill of Rights


What does the media play an extremely important role in doing?

raising awareness of HR abuses around the world and rallying public and gov action to end these abuses.


What has the increasing role of the media meant?

people have 24 access to global news, people are more exposed to HR abuses.


How has the increasing role of the media been +ve?

They can quickly mobilise public action, calling govs and international bodies to uphold NGOs. NGOs can also use media, especially social media to bring the public's attention to HR abuses and rally them to call for action.
+ also more publicity for issues---> greater awareness which overtime can lead to reform.


What is an obvious -ve of NGOs and (the media)?

Whilst they are very effective promoters of HR, they don't have any of the legal power to create lasting change and enforce laws protecting HR abuses.,
Therefore they're largely ineffective enforcers.


What is a +ve example of social media in bringing attention to current HR abuses?

Kony 2012 Campaign- a viral video which increased awareness of child soldiers, calling for prosecution of James Kony.


How much publicity did Kony 2012 Campaign get?

100million views in 1st week
3.6 million pledges
58% young people knew about it


What is the media/NGOs especially good for?

Bringing about change for issues that may not be seen as a concern by larger bodies, eg. the same sex marriage in the UN, IGOs, ICJ ...


How has 24 hr news impacted the effectiveness of the media in promoting HR?

Viewers can be fatigued by the horrors they're constantly exposed to, thus their compassion to lobby for these issues may decrease as they become less sensitised to HR abuses.


Whilst the news can give stories about HR abuses that create initial outcry, what can happen?

Story subsides, no action taken. Eg,


Whilst the news can give stories about HR abuses that create initial outcry, what can happen?

Story subsides, no action taken. Eg, No continued reporting on child soldiers in Africa.


What could be a criticism of the authenticity of the HR abuses promoted by the media through social media?

It largely doesn't have deep coverage, so the public knows about the issue but not 'why'.


Which media is the world media dominated by and what can this affect?

By Fox, which means they can dictate the leading stories.
+The media can be biased in what it chooses to report and how they do so. They only publish what the reader wants to read.


What is the media very influential in?

Raising consciousness and pressuring states into improving HR (enforcing)


In some nations, however the influences of the media in promoting/enforcing HR is limited why?

Media is censored, often by totalitarian regimes
---> North Korea bans listening to foreign radio


What is the media?

An agent of law reform and a provider of info


How do NGOs, (Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International) use social media?

to communicate their ideas


Despite enlightening the public and holding govs to account what else does the media provide?

A platform for discussion.


As media can be used by interest groups to convey a certain message what does this mean?

Media can be misused and misinform public due to bias, an increasing problem on social media where most people esp young people get their news


What is crucially important for sufferers of HR abuses to know and how does this impact journalists?

That their are mechanisms beyond borders which can help ease their suffering. Journalists can be put at great risk by uncovering the abuses-balibo 5


How many journalists were killed in 2012 and how does this show the power of foreign media?

121 worldwide. IT shows the discomfort that HR abusing govs feel when such abuses are exposed, they are held accountable for their actions.


What other forms of media can be effective in conveying a message to promote and ultimately enforce HR?

Movies (Hotel Rwanda), songs (Bowling for Columbine-US gun laws), novels


How has social media contributed to the Jasmine Revolution?

It exposed people (esp young people) in nations where HR abuses were occurring to other forms of government and the living standards and conditions of other nations, enabling them to feel empowered and informed enough to take action.

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