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Flashcards in 3) infection and response Deck (64):
1

communicable diseases

they are diseases that can spread

2

what causes communicable diseases

pathogens which are microorganisms that enter our body can cause disease

3

what can be affected by pathogens

plants and animals

4

the 4 main type of pathogens

-bacteria
-viruses
-protists
-fungi

5

how can pathogens be spread

water- by drinking or bathing in dirty water

air- pathogens can be carried in the air and can be breathed in. when you sneeze or cough; droplets can be spread in the air

direct contact- by touching infected surfaces

6

what are vectors

they are organisms that spread diseases such as mosquitoes

7

how can the spread of disease be prevented

vaccination
staying away from infected people
destroying vectors
being hygenic

8

bacteria

reproduce rapidly
make you ill by producing toxins
toxins damage your cells and tissues

9

two types of bacterial diseases

salmonella and gonorrhoea

10

salmonella

-causes food poisoning
-can suffer from: fever, stomach cramps, vomiting and ----diarrhoea
-symptoms caused by toxins

11

gonorrhoea

-sexually transmitted disease
passed my sexual contact
-can suffer from:pain when they urinate,
-symptoms such as: a green or yellow discharge from the vagina or penis
-

12

viral diseases

-viruses reproduce rapidly
-live inside cells
-make lots of copies of themselves inside cells
-the cell would then burst, releasing all the new viruses
-this cell damage makes you ill

13

viral disease:
measles

spread by droplets from an infected persons sneeze
develop a red skin rash
show signs of fever
people can die if it goes complicated
people are vaccinated against measles when young

14

viral disease:
HIV

spread by sexual contact or by exchanging bodily fluids

15

malaria

disease caused by a protist

16

how big are viruses

they are smaller than bacteria and have a regular shape

17

what do bacteria look like

they are single-celled
they are much smaller than animal and plant cells

18

what is the name of the process when bacteria split into 2

binary fission

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what happens in binary fission

bacteria may produce toxins that affect your body (poisons) and make you ill

sometimes they damage cells

20

what do viruses do

they take over the cells of our body
they live and reproduce inside cells, damaging and destroying them

21

what are common disease symptoms (communicable diseases)

high temperature
headaches
rashes

22

hhttps://www.brainscape.com/decks/5858942/cards/quick_new_cardow are pathogens spread

direct contact
by air- coughing or sneezing
by water-dirty water

23

what are communicable diseases caused by

pathogens

24

bacteria and viruses can both what

reproduce rapidly

25

how can being hygienic improve health

getting rid of germs as some people might cough or sneeze in their hands

26

how can isolating infected individuals improve health

as you wont come in contact with that person there is a very low chance of you catching the disease as pathogens will be stopped from spreading

27

how can destroying vectors improve health

you will kill animals that carry disease such as mosquitos so there will be a low chance of catching malaria

28

What is a monoclonal antibody

MABs are a type of biological therapy. Monoclonal just means all one type. So each MAB is a lot of copies of one type of antibody. MABs are made in a laboratory.

29

how to monoclonal antibodies work

Monoclonal antibodies recognise and attach to specific proteins produced by cells.

30

Viruses are classified as PARASITES. This is because they…

all require a HOST (which they harm) to survive and reproduce

31

How do the white blood cells known as LYMPHOCYTES respond to pathogens?

They physically 'capture' and INGEST ('eat') the foreign cell

32

ANTIBIOTICS do not work on VIRAL diseases. Which key difference between FUNGI and BACTERIA explains this?

Viruses do not have a cell wall

33

How is the structure of CILIATED cells suited to their function in the respiratory tract?

Their CILIA allow them to FILTER and MOISTEN incoming AIR

34

Plasmodium is a ...

Parasite

35

Viruses are classified as PARASITES. This is because they…

all require a HOST (which they harm) to survive and reproduce

36

How do the white blood cells known as LYMPHOCYTES respond to pathogens?

They physically 'capture' and INGEST ('eat') the foreign cell

37

ANTIBIOTICS do not work on VIRAL diseases. Which key difference between FUNGI and BACTERIA explains this?

Viruses do not have a cell wall

38

How is the structure of CILIATED cells suited to their function in the respiratory tract?

Their CILIA allow them to FILTER and MOISTEN incoming AIR

39

Plasmodium is a ...

Parasite

40

Viruses are classified as PARASITES. This is because they…

all require a HOST (which they harm) to survive and reproduce

41

How do the white blood cells known as LYMPHOCYTES respond to pathogens?

They physically 'capture' and INGEST ('eat') the foreign cell

42

ANTIBIOTICS do not work on VIRAL diseases. Which key difference between FUNGI and BACTERIA explains this?

Viruses do not have a cell wall

43

How is the structure of CILIATED cells suited to their function in the respiratory tract?

Their CILIA allow them to FILTER and MOISTEN incoming AIR

44

Plasmodium is a ...

Parasite

45

MONOCLONAL antibodies can be used for DIAGNOSIS such as in PREGNANCY testing because…

they attach to SPECIFIC antigens that are only produced AFTER pregnancy

46

Cholera is a disease which causes watery diarrhoea. It is caused by a…

bacteria

47

Why is the SKIN a useful physical barrier against pathogens?

Its dry, dead outer cells are difficult for microbes to penetrate

48

BACTERIAL cells…

produce toxins

49

how are MICROBES are prevented from entering the body?

sticky MUCUS secretions in the lungs and airways 'catch' microbes and irritants

50

If a tree is showing LEAF LOSS and BARK LESIONS, what is it most likely to be a victim of?

chalara dieback

51

BACTERIAL diseases can be treated with ANTIBIOTICS, how do these work?

they stop bacteria from reproducing

52

Vaccination of a high percentage of the population helps to…

REDUCE the risk of EPIDEMICS by promoting HERD IMMUNITY

53

an example of a fungal disease is ...

athlete'e foot

54

Drugs are tested using BLIND TRIALS, which means…

ONLY the RESEARCHERS know what medication/vaccine the participants are taking (the patients don't know)

55

New drugs are tested for EFFICACY,TOXICITY,SAFETY and…

dosage

56

Painkillers work by…

blocking nerve impulses from the painful part of the body

57

Which term best describes IMMUNITY?

RESISTANCE to infection

58

MONOCLONAL antibodies are produced from a single CLONE of cells by…

STIMULATING mouse lymphocytes to make a PARTICULAR antibody

59

Which of the following terms BEST describes antibiotics?

Substances that KILL and PREVENT growth of bacteria

60

Malaria is a disease transmitted by mosquitoes. It is caused by a…

protozoa

61

What is the MOST EFFECTIVE way in reducing the transmission of MALARIA in sub- saharan regions?

Increased use of INSECTICIDE treated mosquito nets

62

Fungus' cell walls are made from…

chitin

63

ASPIRIN originates from…

willow

64

Why are monoclonal antibodies NOT as popular as we thought?

They create more SIDE EFFECTS than expected and are not as WIDELY USED as everyone hoped