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Flashcards in 30012018 Deck (20):
1

Understanding Human-Environment Interaction In Ancient Mongolia

- Lisa Jazz

2

Mongolia

- Btw Russian Federation and People’s Republic of China
- Climate: harsh extreme (-40 in winter to 100 in summer)
> Dramatic change
- Population: 10 years ago 30% lives in cities > increase now

3

Agriculturalists, herders, and hunter-gatherers in East Asia

- Nomadic Pastoralists (beginning 3300 BC)
- Moving settlements seasonally (1-2 times / yr)
- Domesticated wheat + barley
- Domesticated cattle, sheep, goats, horses
- Milk + milk products
- Wild sheep, goats, gazelle, deer, rabbits, birds, fish
- Wild fruits, nuts, grains + tubers
- Gobi Desert Hunter-Gatherers (until 1500 BC)
- Moving settlements regularly
- Wild horses, cattle, deer, sheep, goats, gazelle
- Wild rabbits, birds, frogs ?
- Wild greens, fruits, nuts, grains + tubers
- Wild grass seeds
- Agriculturalists (beginning 6000BC)
- Large settlements in 1 place
- Domesticated millet + rice
- Domesticated pigs + chicken
- Wild cattle, gazelle, deer, rabbits, birds, fish
- Wild fruits, nuts, grains + tubers
> Know the environment > Diet choice + eating habit

4

Gobi-Steppe Neolithic Project

- Excavation include: burials, habitation sites
- Aim: how human adapt to environment change + how human change the environment as well

5

Mongolian Neolithic

Period | Dates | Tech | Land-use
Oasis 1 | 11500-6000BC | Pottery after 7700BC, microblades | High residential mobility, increasing use of wetlands
Oasis 2 | 6000-3000BC | Pottery, Microblades, grinding stones | Wetland-centric, logistic mobility
Oasis 3 / Bronze Age | 3000-1000BC | Pottery, microblades, bifaces, polished axes | Wetland-centric, mixed mobility?

6

Pleistocence (Ice Age) Ecosystems

- 2.5 million to 11700 years ago
- Fluctuation of climate since 120,000 years ago
- Mammoth, giant beaver, Irish elk
- Africa: covered by grassland > human = part of the grasslands (in the ecosystem)

7

Holocene (Post-Glacial) Ecosystems

- 11700 years ago to present
- Wetlands
> Change types of food ppl ate

8

Human environmental impacts

1. Wild fire
2. Harvesting (e.g. wild rice)
3. Human produce garbage for raccoons to eat
4. Landscape engineering: the intentional way human modifying lands
(E.g. coastal California landscapes were created by fire to suit the needs of indigenous hunter-gatherers; Australian indigenous gps use fire to improve environmental carrying capacity)

9

Anthropogenic (human modified) Landscapes

-

10

Human and landscape palaeoecology

3 important methods:
1. Geoarchaeology
2. Species identification
3. Ecological modeling

11

Geoarchaeology

1. Stratigraphy and soil types (e.g. river cut, wet-dry cycles)
2. Dating sediments
3. Microbotanical remains
4. Mapping landforms

12

Zooarchaeology and Palaeoethnobotany

1. Species (taxonomic) list (e.g. hare bones, grass seeds)
2. Species identification
3. Taphonomy
4. Weights and counts
- In dry cave, only burned seeds can survive

13

GIS-Based Ecological Modelling

1. Compiling NASA satellite imagery
2. Creating GIS-based hydrological models
3. Modelling species interactions (community ecology)
4. Modelling species distributions (MaxEnt)
5. Refining models based on field tests
6. Mapping on archaeological data
* Many of them based on hydrology

14

Site: Zaraa Uul

- Getting bones in this landscape
> Hunting animals that are extinct today
> Suggest the environment is different
> Wetlands + grasslands > grasslands
> ? Former lake basin at Zaraa Uul > compared to HUla wetlands in Israel

15

Lecture

-

16

***Site formation (VERY IMPORTANT!!)

= Product of:
1. Material deposited:
A. Type of material
B. Process of deposition
- accidental, e.g. loss
- intentional, e.g. burial or trash
2. Environment
A. Climatic variables
- Acidic, e.g. NE Woodlands
- Arid, e.g. American SW; highland Andes
- Wet, e.g. Submerged, frozen
B. Depositional setting

17

Depositional environments

1. Non-depositional (e.g. lakeshore)
2. “Accretions” (e.g. rockshelter)
3. Alluvial (e.g. floodplain)

18

1. Non-deposition environment

Non-depositional (e.g. lakeshore)
E.g. typical non-depositional sole profile
- “O” horizon 0-5cm below ground surface = zone of organic (dark)
- “A” horizon 5-15cm = zone of leaching, organic breakdown
- “B” horizon 15-38cm = zone of accumulation, chemical alteration
> Iron ores (Colors)
- “C” horizon >38cm = zone of inactive sediment, “parent material”
> Most of the things wont get burial in depth > close to surface
> <10% artifact distribution 40cm below the ground surface
- Fire-cracked rock: heat up the rocks > put into water > rocks crack > disposal
- Postholes > how ppl are organized

19

2. Accretional

Accretional (e.g. rockshelter)
- Little separation btw occupation

20

3. Alluvial

Alluvial (e.g. floodplain)
- Winooski - Burlington bridge @1928 taken by a flood
- Anthropogenic: generally made by human / human activities
> e.g. dark lines in btw light soils layers > human activities
- Site: Milo, Maine, perfect floodplain per 5 hundred years
- Better preservation: preserved by sand layers
- Site Howe Farm, Winooski River Intervale: Logs down > erosion