4.4.1 Respiration Flashcards Preview

Respiration > 4.4.1 Respiration > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4.4.1 Respiration Deck (23):
1

 

outline why plants, animals and microorganisms need to respire, with reference to active transport and metabolic reactions; 

 

2

 

describe, with the aid of diagrams, the structure of ATP 

 

3

 

state that ATP provides the immediate source of energy for biological processes 

 

4

 

explain the importance of coenzymes in respiration, with reference to NAD and coenzyme A; 

 

5

 

state that glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm 

 

6

 

outline the process of glycolysis beginning with the phosphorylation of glucose to hexose bisphosphate, splitting of hexose bisphosphate into two triose phosphate molecules and further oxidation to pyruvate, producing a small yield of ATP and reduced NAD; 

 

7

 

state that, during aerobic respiration in animals, pyruvate is actively transported into mitochondria; 

 

8

 

explain, with the aid of diagrams and electron micrographs, how the structure of mitochondria enables them to carry out their functions 

 

9

 

state that the link reaction takes place in the mitochondrial matrix 

 

10

 

outline the link reaction, with reference to decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetate and the reduction of NAD;

 

11

 

explain that acetate is combined with coenzyme A to be carried to the next stage 

 

12

 

state that the Krebs cycle takes place in the mitochondrial matrix 

 

13

 

outline the Krebs cycle, with reference to the formation of citrate from acetate and oxaloacetate and the reconversion of citrate to oxaloacetate (names of intermediate compounds are not required) 

 

14

 

explain that during the Krebs cycle, decarboxylation and dehydrogenation occur, NAD and FAD are reduced and substrate level phosphorylation occurs; 

 

15

 

outline the process of oxidative phosphorylation, with reference to the roles of electron carriers, oxygen and the mitochondrial cristae 

 

16

 

outline the process of chemiosmosis, with reference to the electron transport chain, proton gradients and ATPsynthase (HSW7a); 

 

17

 

state that oxygen is the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration 

 

18

 

evaluate the experimental evidence for the theory of chemiosmosis (HSW1); 

 

19

 

explain why the theoretical maximum yield of ATP per molecule of glucose is rarely, if ever, achieved in aerobic respiration 

 

20

 

explain why anaerobic respiration produces a much lower yield of ATP than aerobic respiration; 

 

21

 

compare and contrast anaerobic respiration in mammals and in yeast 

 

22

 

define the term respiratory substrate 

 

23

 

explain the difference in relative energy values of carbohydrate, lipid and protein respiratory substrates