4.5: Co-transport and absorption of glucose in the ileum Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4.5: Co-transport and absorption of glucose in the ileum Deck (61):
1

The epithelial cells lining the ileum possess what?

The epithelial cells lining the ileum possess microvilli

2

The epithelial cells lining the ileum possess microvilli.
What are microvilli?

Microvilli are finger-like projections of the cell-surface membrane about 0.6 μm in length

3

The epithelial cells lining the ileum possess microvilli.
Microvilli are finger-like projections of the cell-surface membrane about 0.6 μm in length.
The microvilli provide more surface area for what?

The microvilli provide more surface area for the insertion of carrier proteins

4

The epithelial cells lining the ileum possess microvilli.
Microvilli are finger-like projections of the cell-surface membrane about 0.6 μm in length.
The microvilli provide more surface area for the insertion of carrier proteins through which what can take place?

The microvilli provide more surface area for the insertion of carrier proteins through which:
1. Diffusion
2. Facilitated diffusion
3. Active transport
can take place

5

The epithelial cells lining the ileum possess microvilli.
Microvilli are finger-like projections of the cell-surface membrane about 0.6 μm in length.
The microvilli provide more surface area for the insertion of carrier proteins through which diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport can take place.
Another mechanism to increase transport across membranes is to increase the number of what in any given area of membrane?

Another mechanism to increase transport across membranes is to increase the number of:
1. Protein channels
2. Carrier proteins
in any given area of membrane

6

The epithelial cells lining the ileum possess microvilli.
Microvilli are finger-like projections of the cell-surface membrane about 0.6 μm in length.
The microvilli provide more surface area for the insertion of carrier proteins through which diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport can take place.
Another mechanism to increase transport across membranes is to increase the number of protein channels and carrier proteins in any given area of membrane (increase their what)?

Another mechanism to increase transport across membranes is to increase the number of:
1. Protein channels
2. Carrier proteins
in any given area of membrane (increase their density)

7

As carbohydrates and proteins are being digested continuously, there is normally a greater concentration of glucose and amino acids within what than in the blood?

As carbohydrates and proteins are being digested continuously, there is normally a greater concentration of:
1. Glucose
2. Amino acids
within the ileum than in the blood

8

As carbohydrates and proteins are being digested continuously, there is normally a greater concentration of glucose and amino acids within the ileum than in the blood.
Given that blood is constantly being circulated by the heart, the glucose absorbed into it is continuously being what?

Given that blood is constantly being circulated by the heart, the glucose absorbed into it is continuously being removed by the cells as they use it up during respiration

9

As carbohydrates and proteins are being digested continuously, there is normally a greater concentration of glucose and amino acids within the ileum than in the blood.
Given that blood is constantly being circulated by the heart, the glucose absorbed into it is continuously being removed by the cells as they use it up during respiration.
This helps to maintain what?

This helps to maintain the concentration gradient between the:
1. Inside of the ileum
2. Blood

10

Villi

Villi are 1 mm projections of the wall of the ileum

11

Villi are 1 mm projections of the wall of the ileum, while microvilli are 0.6 μm projections of the cell-surface membrane of what?

Villi are 1 mm projections of the wall of the ileum, while microvilli are 0.6 μm projections of the cell-surface membrane of the epithelial cells that line this wall

12

Villi are 1 mm projections of the wall of the ileum, while microvilli are 0.6 μm projections of the cell-surface membrane of the epithelial cells that line this wall.
Microvilli are therefore more than how many times smaller than villi?

Microvilli are therefore more than 1,000 times smaller than villi

13

Adaptations of the small intestine for absorption are that:
1. It is what?

Adaptations of the small intestine for absorption are that it is long

14

Adaptations of the small intestine for absorption are that:
1. It is long.
It has a large what for efficient absorption?

The small intestine has a large surface area for efficient absorption

15

Adaptations of the small intestine for absorption are that:
1. It is long.
The small intestine has a large surface area for efficient absorption.
2. It is what?

Adaptations of the small intestine for absorption are that it is folded

16

Adaptations of the small intestine for absorption are that:
1. It is long.
The small intestine has a large surface area for efficient absorption.
2. It is folded, which further does what?

Adaptations of the small intestine for absorption are that it is folded, which further increases its surface area

17

Adaptations of the small intestine for absorption are that:
1. It is long.
The small intestine has a large surface area for efficient absorption.
2. It is folded, which further increases its surface area.
3. It has what, which are finger-like projections?

Adaptations of the small intestine for absorption are that it has villi, which are finger-like projections

18

Adaptations of the small intestine for absorption are that:
1. It is long.
The small intestine has a large surface area for efficient absorption.
2. It is folded, which further increases its surface area.
3. It has villi, which are finger-like projections that do what?

Adaptations of the small intestine for absorption are that it has villi, which are finger-like projections that increase the surface area

19

Adaptations of the small intestine for absorption are that:
1. It is long.
The small intestine has a large surface area for efficient absorption.
2. It is folded, which further increases its surface area.
3. It has villi, which are finger-like projections that increase the surface area.
4. It has a thin what?

Adaptations of the small intestine for absorption are that it has a thin epithelium

20

Adaptations of the small intestine for absorption are that:
1. It is long.
The small intestine has a large surface area for efficient absorption.
2. It is folded, which further increases its surface area.
3. It has villi, which are finger-like projections that increase the surface area.
4. It has a thin epithelium (what), which is how thick?

Adaptations of the small intestine for absorption are that it has a thin epithelium (inner layer), which is one cell thick

21

Adaptations of the small intestine for absorption are that:
1. It is long.
The small intestine has a large surface area for efficient absorption.
2. It is folded, which further increases its surface area.
3. It has villi, which are finger-like projections that increase the surface area.
4. It has a thin epithelium (inner layer), which is one cell thick.
What does this do?

This creates a short diffusion pathway

22

Adaptations of the small intestine for absorption are that:
1. It is long.
The small intestine has a large surface area for efficient absorption.
2. It is folded, which further increases its surface area.
3. It has villi, which are finger-like projections that increase the surface area.
4. It has a thin epithelium (inner layer), which is one cell thick.
This creates a short diffusion pathway.
5. Epithelial cells have what?

Adaptations of the small intestine for absorption are that epithelial cells have microvilli

23

Adaptations of the small intestine for absorption are that:
1. It is long.
The small intestine has a large surface area for efficient absorption.
2. It is folded, which further increases its surface area.
3. It has villi, which are finger-like projections that increase the surface area.
4. It has a thin epithelium (inner layer), which is one cell thick.
This creates a short diffusion pathway.
5. Epithelial cells have microvilli.
6. The villi have a good what?

Adaptations of the small intestine for absorption are that the villi have a good blood supply

24

Co-transport

Co-transport is a special type of active transport

25

Co-transport is a special type of active transport.
Monosaccharides do what this way?

Monosaccharides move across the epithelium of the small intestine into the capillaries in this way

26

Co-transport is a special type of active transport.
Monosaccharides move across the epithelium of the small intestine into the capillaries in this way.
What are too large?

1. Disaccharides
2. Polysaccharides
are too large

27

Glucose must be moved from what into what?

Glucose must be moved from the:
1. Lumen of the gut
into
2. Epithelial cells

28

Glucose must be moved from the lumen of the gut into the epithelial cells.
But, the concentration of glucose is usually what in the epithelial cells than in the gut?

But, the concentration of glucose is usually higher in the epithelial cells than in the gut

29

Glucose must be moved from the lumen of the gut into the epithelial cells.
But, the concentration of glucose is usually higher in the epithelial cells than in the gut.
Therefore, transport into the cell requires what?

Therefore, transport into the cell requires energy

30

Glucose must be moved from the lumen of the gut into the epithelial cells.
But, the concentration of glucose is usually higher in the epithelial cells than in the gut.
Therefore, transport into the cell requires energy.
What have to move glucose across the membrane, due to its size?

Transport proteins have to move glucose across the membrane, due to its size

31

Glucose must be moved from the lumen of the gut into the epithelial cells.
But, the concentration of glucose is usually higher in the epithelial cells than in the gut.
Therefore, transport into the cell requires energy.
Transport proteins have to move glucose across the membrane, due to its size.
Glucose is transported with what?

Glucose is transported with sodium ions (Na+)

32

Glucose must be moved from the lumen of the gut into the epithelial cells.
But, the concentration of glucose is usually higher in the epithelial cells than in the gut.
Therefore, transport into the cell requires energy.
Transport proteins have to move glucose across the membrane, due to its size.
Glucose is transported with sodium ions (Na+).
How do the sodium ions move?

The sodium ions move along a concentration gradient (high to low)

33

Glucose must be moved from the lumen of the gut into the epithelial cells.
But, the concentration of glucose is usually higher in the epithelial cells than in the gut.
Therefore, transport into the cell requires energy.
Transport proteins have to move glucose across the membrane, due to its size.
Glucose is transported with sodium ions (Na+).
The sodium ions move along a concentration gradient (high to low), whereas glucose molecules move how?

The:
1. Sodium ions move along a concentration gradient (high to low)
,whereas
2. Glucose molecules move against a concentration gradient (low to high)

34

Glucose must be moved from the lumen of the gut into the epithelial cells.
But, the concentration of glucose is usually higher in the epithelial cells than in the gut.
Therefore, transport into the cell requires energy.
Transport proteins have to move glucose across the membrane, due to its size.
Glucose is transported with sodium ions (Na+).
The sodium ions move along a concentration gradient (high to low), whereas glucose molecules move against a concentration gradient (low to high).
What is the Na+-glucose symporter?

The Na+-glucose symporter is the pump that moves:
1. Glucose
2. Na+
across the epithelial cell membrane together

35

Glucose must be moved from the lumen of the gut into the epithelial cells.
But, the concentration of glucose is usually higher in the epithelial cells than in the gut.
Therefore, transport into the cell requires energy.
Transport proteins have to move glucose across the membrane, due to its size.
Glucose is transported with sodium ions (Na+).
The sodium ions move along a concentration gradient (high to low), whereas glucose molecules move against a concentration gradient (low to high).
The Na+-glucose symporter is the pump that moves glucose and Na+ across the epithelial cell membrane together.
Both Na+ and glucose can bind to the pump, but the binding of one makes the other what?

Both:
1. Na+
2. Glucose
can bind to the pump, but the binding of one makes the other more effective

36

Glucose must be moved from the lumen of the gut into the epithelial cells.
But, the concentration of glucose is usually higher in the epithelial cells than in the gut.
Therefore, transport into the cell requires energy.
Transport proteins have to move glucose across the membrane, due to its size.
Glucose is transported with sodium ions (Na+).
The sodium ions move along a concentration gradient (high to low), whereas glucose molecules move against a concentration gradient (low to high).
The Na+-glucose symporter is the pump that moves glucose and Na+ across the epithelial cell membrane together.
Both Na+ and glucose can bind to the pump, but the binding of one makes the other more effective.
What must bind to the protein before they can be transported across the membrane?

1. 2 glucose molecules
2. 2 Na+ ions
must bind to the protein before they can be transported across the membrane

37

Glucose must be moved from the lumen of the gut into the epithelial cells.
But, the concentration of glucose is usually higher in the epithelial cells than in the gut.
Therefore, transport into the cell requires energy.
Transport proteins have to move glucose across the membrane, due to its size.
Glucose is transported with sodium ions (Na+).
The sodium ions move along a concentration gradient (high to low), whereas glucose molecules move against a concentration gradient (low to high).
The Na+-glucose symporter is the pump that moves glucose and Na+ across the epithelial cell membrane together.
Both Na+ and glucose can bind to the pump, but the binding of one makes the other more effective.
2 glucose molecules and 2 Na+ ions must bind to the protein before they can be transported across the membrane.
Glucose and Na+ could in theory move back across the membrane the other way, but there is what inside of the cell?

1. Glucose
2. Na+
could in theory move back across the membrane the other way, but there is a very low concentration of Na+ on the inside of the cell

38

Glucose must be moved from the lumen of the gut into the epithelial cells.
But, the concentration of glucose is usually higher in the epithelial cells than in the gut.
Therefore, transport into the cell requires energy.
Transport proteins have to move glucose across the membrane, due to its size.
Glucose is transported with sodium ions (Na+).
The sodium ions move along a concentration gradient (high to low), whereas glucose molecules move against a concentration gradient (low to high).
The Na+-glucose symporter is the pump that moves glucose and Na+ across the epithelial cell membrane together.
Both Na+ and glucose can bind to the pump, but the binding of one makes the other more effective.
2 glucose molecules and 2 Na+ ions must bind to the protein before they can be transported across the membrane.
Glucose and Na+ could in theory move back across the membrane the other way, but there is a very low concentration of Na+ on the inside of the cell, so it is rare that Na+ will do what?

1. Glucose
2. Na+
could in theory move back across the membrane the other way, but there is a very low concentration of Na+ on the inside of the cell, so it is rare that Na+ will move into the symporter from this side

39

Glucose must be moved from the lumen of the gut into the epithelial cells.
But, the concentration of glucose is usually higher in the epithelial cells than in the gut.
Therefore, transport into the cell requires energy.
Transport proteins have to move glucose across the membrane, due to its size.
Glucose is transported with sodium ions (Na+).
The sodium ions move along a concentration gradient (high to low), whereas glucose molecules move against a concentration gradient (low to high).
The Na+-glucose symporter is the pump that moves glucose and Na+ across the epithelial cell membrane together.
Both Na+ and glucose can bind to the pump, but the binding of one makes the other more effective.
2 glucose molecules and 2 Na+ ions must bind to the protein before they can be transported across the membrane.
Glucose and Na+ could in theory move back across the membrane the other way, but there is a very low concentration of Na+ on the inside of the cell, so it is rare that Na+ will move into the symporter from this side.
Therefore, glucose does not do what?

Therefore, glucose does not follow

40

Glucose must be moved from the lumen of the gut into the epithelial cells.
But, the concentration of glucose is usually higher in the epithelial cells than in the gut.
Therefore, transport into the cell requires energy.
Transport proteins have to move glucose across the membrane, due to its size.
Glucose is transported with sodium ions (Na+).
The sodium ions move along a concentration gradient (high to low), whereas glucose molecules move against a concentration gradient (low to high).
The Na+-glucose symporter is the pump that moves glucose and Na+ across the epithelial cell membrane together.
Both Na+ and glucose can bind to the pump, but the binding of one makes the other more effective.
2 glucose molecules and 2 Na+ ions must bind to the protein before they can be transported across the membrane.
Glucose and Na+ could in theory move back across the membrane the other way, but there is a very low concentration of Na+ on the inside of the cell, so it is rare that Na+ will move into the symporter from this side.
Therefore, glucose does not follow and we say the import is what?

Therefore:
1. Glucose does not follow
2. We say the import is unidirectional

41

Movement of glucose into the blood:
Glucose molecules move into the blood by the what via what?

Glucose molecules move into the blood by the glucose uniporter via facilitated diffusion

42

Movement of glucose into the blood:
Glucose molecules move into the blood by the glucose uniporter via facilitated diffusion.
The what pump pumps out what in exchange for what?

The Na+/K+ pump pumps out:
1. 3 Na+ ions
in exchange for
2. 2 K+ ions

43

Movement of glucose into the blood:
Glucose molecules move into the blood by the glucose uniporter via facilitated diffusion.
The Na+/K+ pump pumps out 3 Na+ ions in exchange for 2 K+ ions via what?

The Na+/K+ pump pumps out:
1. 3 Na+ ions
in exchange for
2. 2 K+ ions
via active transport

44

Movement of glucose into the blood:
Glucose molecules move into the blood by the glucose uniporter via facilitated diffusion.
The Na+/K+ pump pumps out 3 Na+ ions in exchange for 2 K+ ions via active transport.
Therefore, we do not get a high concentration of sodium inside the epithelial cell.
What does the Na+/K+ pump use?

The Na+/K+ pump uses ATPase

45

Movement of glucose into the blood:
Glucose molecules move into the blood by the glucose uniporter via facilitated diffusion.
The Na+/K+ pump pumps out 3 Na+ ions in exchange for 2 K+ ions via active transport.
Therefore, we do not get a high concentration of sodium inside the epithelial cell.
The Na+/K+ pump uses ATPase.
What is ATPase?

ATPase is an enzyme that hydrolyses ATP

46

In the lumen of the ileum, there is a what concentration of glucose and a what concentration of sodium?

In the lumen of the ileum, there is a:
1. Low concentration of glucose
2. High concentration of sodium

47

In the lumen of the ileum, there is a low concentration of glucose and a high concentration of sodium.
Glucose and sodium move into the epithelial cell by what?

1. Glucose
2. Sodium
move into the epithelial cell by the Na+-glucose symporter

48

In the lumen of the ileum, there is a low concentration of glucose and a high concentration of sodium.
Glucose and sodium move into the epithelial cell by the Na+-glucose symporter via what?

Glucose and sodium move into the epithelial cell by the Na+-glucose symporter via co-transport

49

In the lumen of the ileum, there is a low concentration of glucose and a high concentration of sodium.
Glucose and sodium move into the epithelial cell by the Na+-glucose symporter via co-transport.
In the Na+-glucose symporter, the glucose and sodium molecules must be what?

In the Na+-glucose symporter, the:
1. Glucose
2. Sodium
molecules must be together

50

In the lumen of the ileum, there is a low concentration of glucose and a high concentration of sodium.
Glucose and sodium move into the epithelial cell by the Na+-glucose symporter via co-transport.
In the Na+-glucose symporter, the glucose and sodium molecules must be together.
In the epithelial cell, there is a what concentration of glucose and a what concentration of sodium?

In the epithelial cell, there is a:
1. High concentration of glucose
2. Low concentration of sodium

51

In the lumen of the ileum, there is a low concentration of glucose and a high concentration of sodium.
Glucose and sodium move into the epithelial cell by the Na+-glucose symporter via co-transport.
In the Na+-glucose symporter, the glucose and sodium molecules must be together.
In the epithelial cell, there is a high concentration of glucose and a low concentration of sodium.
1. Glucose moves into the blood by what?

Glucose moves into the blood by the glucose uniporter

52

In the lumen of the ileum, there is a low concentration of glucose and a high concentration of sodium.
Glucose and sodium move into the epithelial cell by the Na+-glucose symporter via co-transport.
In the Na+-glucose symporter, the glucose and sodium molecules must be together.
In the epithelial cell, there is a high concentration of glucose and a low concentration of sodium.
1. Glucose moves into the blood by the glucose uniporter via what?

Glucose moves into the blood by the glucose uniporter via facilitated diffusion

53

In the lumen of the ileum, there is a low concentration of glucose and a high concentration of sodium.
Glucose and sodium move into the epithelial cell by the Na+-glucose symporter via co-transport.
In the Na+-glucose symporter, the glucose and sodium molecules must be together.
In the epithelial cell, there is a high concentration of glucose and a low concentration of sodium.
1. Glucose moves into the blood by the glucose uniporter via facilitated diffusion, how?

Glucose moves into the blood by the glucose uniporter via facilitated diffusion, one glucose molecule at a time

54

In the lumen of the ileum, there is a low concentration of glucose and a high concentration of sodium.
Glucose and sodium move into the epithelial cell by the Na+-glucose symporter via co-transport.
In the Na+-glucose symporter, the glucose and sodium molecules must be together.
In the epithelial cell, there is a high concentration of glucose and a low concentration of sodium.
1. Glucose moves into the blood by the glucose uniporter via facilitated diffusion, one glucose molecule at a time.
2. The Na+/K+ pump pumps out 3 Na+ ions in exchange for 2 K+ ions via active transport.
In the blood, there is a what concentration of glucose?

In the blood, there is a what low concentration of glucose

55

In the lumen of the ileum, there is a low concentration of glucose and a high concentration of sodium.
Glucose and sodium move into the epithelial cell by the Na+-glucose symporter via co-transport.
In the Na+-glucose symporter, the glucose and sodium molecules must be together.
In the epithelial cell, there is a high concentration of glucose and a low concentration of sodium.
1. Glucose moves into the blood by the glucose uniporter via facilitated diffusion, one glucose molecule at a time.
2. The Na+/K+ pump pumps out 3 Na+ ions in exchange for 2 K+ ions via active transport.
In the blood, there is a low concentration of glucose, because what?

In the blood, there is a low concentration of glucose, because blood is a stream, constantly moving

56

In the lumen of the ileum, there is a low concentration of glucose and a high concentration of sodium.
Glucose and sodium move into the epithelial cell by the Na+-glucose symporter via co-transport.
In the Na+-glucose symporter, the glucose and sodium molecules must be together.
In the epithelial cell, there is a high concentration of glucose and a low concentration of sodium.
1. Glucose moves into the blood by the glucose uniporter via facilitated diffusion, one glucose molecule at a time.
2. The Na+/K+ pump pumps out 3 Na+ ions in exchange for 2 K+ ions via active transport.
In the blood, there is a low concentration of glucose, because blood is a stream, constantly moving.
In the blood, there is also a what concentration of what?

In the blood, there is also a low concentration of sodium

57

In the lumen of the ileum, there is a low concentration of glucose and a high concentration of sodium.
Glucose and sodium move into the epithelial cell by the Na+-glucose symporter via co-transport.
In the Na+-glucose symporter, the glucose and sodium molecules must be together.
In the epithelial cell, there is a high concentration of glucose and a low concentration of sodium.
1. Glucose moves into the blood by the glucose uniporter via facilitated diffusion, one glucose molecule at a time.
2. The Na+/K+ pump pumps out 3 Na+ ions in exchange for 2 K+ ions via active transport.
In the blood, there is a low concentration of glucose, because blood is a stream, constantly moving.
In the blood, there is also a low concentration of sodium, because what?

In the blood, there is also a low concentration of sodium, because:
1. It is being moved by the Na+/K+ pump
2. Blood is constantly moving

58

In the lumen of the ileum, there is a low concentration of glucose and a high concentration of sodium.
Glucose and sodium move into the epithelial cell by the Na+-glucose symporter via co-transport.
In the Na+-glucose symporter, the glucose and sodium molecules must be together.
In the epithelial cell, there is a high concentration of glucose and a low concentration of sodium.
1. Glucose moves into the blood by the glucose uniporter via facilitated diffusion, one glucose molecule at a time.
2. The Na+/K+ pump pumps out 3 Na+ ions in exchange for 2 K+ ions via active transport.
In the blood, there is a low concentration of glucose, because blood is a stream, constantly moving.
In the blood, there is also a low concentration of sodium, because it is being moved by the Na+/K+ pump and blood is constantly moving.
When sodium comes into the epithelial cells by the Na+-glucose symporter, what will happen?

When sodium comes into the epithelial cells by the Na+-glucose symporter, its concentration will increase

59

In the lumen of the ileum, there is a low concentration of glucose and a high concentration of sodium.
Glucose and sodium move into the epithelial cell by the Na+-glucose symporter via co-transport.
In the Na+-glucose symporter, the glucose and sodium molecules must be together.
In the epithelial cell, there is a high concentration of glucose and a low concentration of sodium.
1. Glucose moves into the blood by the glucose uniporter via facilitated diffusion, one glucose molecule at a time.
2. The Na+/K+ pump pumps out 3 Na+ ions in exchange for 2 K+ ions via active transport.
In the blood, there is a low concentration of glucose, because blood is a stream, constantly moving.
In the blood, there is also a low concentration of sodium, because it is being moved by the Na+/K+ pump and blood is constantly moving.
When sodium comes into the epithelial cells by the Na+-glucose symporter, its concentration will increase, but we need the concentration of it in the epithelial cell to be low, so that what will keep happening?

When sodium comes into the epithelial cells by the Na+-glucose symporter, its concentration will increase, but we need the concentration of it in the epithelial cell to be low, so that the:
1. Na+-glucose symporter
2. Glucose uniporter
will keep happening

60

In the lumen of the ileum, there is a low concentration of glucose and a high concentration of sodium.
Glucose and sodium move into the epithelial cell by the Na+-glucose symporter via co-transport.
In the Na+-glucose symporter, the glucose and sodium molecules must be together.
In the epithelial cell, there is a high concentration of glucose and a low concentration of sodium.
1. Glucose moves into the blood by the glucose uniporter via facilitated diffusion, one glucose molecule at a time.
2. The Na+/K+ pump pumps out 3 Na+ ions in exchange for 2 K+ ions via active transport.
In the blood, there is a low concentration of glucose, because blood is a stream, constantly moving.
In the blood, there is also a low concentration of sodium, because it is being moved by the Na+/K+ pump and blood is constantly moving.
When sodium comes into the epithelial cells by the Na+-glucose symporter, its concentration will increase, but we need the concentration of it in the epithelial cell to be low, so that the Na+-glucose symporter and the glucose uniporter will keep happening, so there is what?

Na+-glucose symporter, its concentration will increase, but we need the concentration of it in the epithelial cell to be low, so that the:
1. Na+-glucose symporter
2. Glucose uniporter
will keep happening, so there is the Na+/K+ pump

61

Movement of glucose into the blood:
Glucose molecules move into the blood by the glucose uniporter via facilitated diffusion.
The Na+/K+ pump pumps out 3 Na+ ions in exchange for 2 K+ ions via active transport.
Therefore, we do not get what?

Therefore, we do not get a high concentration of sodium inside the epithelial cell