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Flashcards in 5 Causes Of Deck (39):
1

Pleural effusion that is a transudate

LV Failure
Liver cirrhosis
Hypoalbuminaemia
Hypothyroidism
Nephrotic Syndrome

2

Pleural effusion that is an exudate

Malignancy
Parapneumonic effusion (I.e. pneumonia, lung abscess, bronhciectasis)
TB
PE
Post MI

3

Pneumothorax

Spontaneous
Airways disease - asthma, COPD, CF
Infection - TB, pneumonia
Interstitial lung disease - sarcoidosis, IPF
Connective tissue disease - RA, ank spon, scleroderma, marfans

4

Bloody diarrhoea

Campylobacter
E.Coli O157:H7
Salmonella
Shigella
Yersinia

5

RUQ Pain

Gallstone (biliary colic)
Acute cholecystitis/cholangitis
Acute pancreatitis
Liver disease - acute hep, abscess, tumours
R kidney disease - stones, pyelonephritis

6

Type 1 respiratory failure

Type 1 = hypoxic (lung failure)

(R to L shunt or V/Q mismatch)

PE
ARDS
pneumonia
asthma,
pneumothorax

7

Type 2 Respiratory Failure

Type 2 = hypercapnic (ventilatory failure or pump failure)

Chronic COPD
Neuromuscular - guillian barre, poliomyelitis, spinal injury
Hyoventilation
Drug overdose, poisoning
Chest wall deformity

8

Respiratory acidosis

= ventilation problems

CNS/neuromuscular - MG, ALS, guillian barre
Airway obstruction in asthma/COPD obstruction

9

Causes of pancreatitis

GET SMASHED

Gallstones, Ethanol, Trauma
Steroids, Mumps, Autoimmune, Scorpion sting,
Hyperlipidaemka, hypothermia, hyperparathyroidism,

ERCP
Drugs

10

Epigastric Pain

Acute MI
Acute pancreatitis
Perforated peptic ulcer
Gastritis
Hepatobiliary Disease

11

Bowel obstruction

Adhesions
Hernias
Malignancy
Intussusception
External compression (abscess, endometriosis, pancreatic pseudo cyst)

12

Upper GI bleed

Perforated ulcer
Oesophageal varices
Mallory Weiss tear
Malignancy
Blood from oral or nasal cavity?

13

Lower GI bleed

Diverticulosis
Gi malignancy
Upper GI bleed
IBD
Rectal/anal conditions

14

Steatorrhea

Pancreatic disease: obstructive pancreatic cancer , chronic pancreatitis, CF
Intestinal disease: short bowel syndrome, celiac disease, crohn’s
Hepatobiliary: liver disease, biliary cirrhosis, gallstones

15

Obstructive jaundice

‘Obstructive’ = post-hepatic

Gallstone, cholangitis
Hepatic, biliary or pancreatic malignancies
Benign structure of bile duct
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Compression by pancreatic cysts, lymphadenopathy



Conjugated:
Hepatic - viral hepatitis, drugs, cirrhosis, tumours
Biliary Disease - primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis
Post hepatic/obstruction- gallstones, cancers (liver, pancreas, bile ducts)

16

Diarrhea

Infection
IBS
IBD
?

17

Peptic ulcers

H.pylori
NSAIDs
Stress ulcers (trauma, burns)
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma)

18

Seizures

Primary seizures:
Epilepsy

Secondary seizures:
Infection - febrile seizures, CNS infections, HIV
CNS tumours
Vascular - cerebrovascular disease, CNS bleed
Alzheimer’s,
Drugs and toxins - alcohol withdrawal, cocaine,
Metabolic - hypoglycaemia, hyponatraemia, hypocalcaemia
Eclampsia

19

Pulmonary oedema

CHF
Acute MI
ARDS
Acute lung injury from inhalation of hot/toxic gases
Neurogenic- seizures, head trauma

20

Cardiac tamponade

Chest trauma
Pericarditis
Malignancy
Myocardial rupture
Retrograde aortic dissection

21

Palpitations

Arrhythmia
Anxiety
Hyperthyroidism
Hypovolaemia, anaemia, hypoglycaemia
Pheochromocytoma
Drugs, alcohol, caffeine

22

Petechiae

Thrombocytopenia
Vasculitis
DIC, TTP,
Infections - meningococaemia, endocarditis, sepsis
Medication - anticoagulants

23

Unintentional weight loss

Malignancy
Hyperthyroidism
IBD, celiac disease
Alcohol, drugs - cocaine, amphetamines
Advanced chronic disease - HIV, cardiac cachexia, renal failure

24

Ascites

Liver cirrhosis
Heart failure/ constrictive pericarditis
Budd Chiari Syndrome
Nephrotic Syndrome
Malignancy

25

Fever

Infection
Malignancy
Connective tissue disease (RA, vasculitis, SLA)

26

Tired all the time

Anemia
Hypothyroidism
Cardiopulmonary conditions - CHF, COPD, sleep apnea
Infection - TB, viral hepatitis, HIV
Medication and substance abuse

27

Sudden collapse

Acute MI
Massive PE
Arrhythmia
Acute haemorrhage (GI, ectopic pregnancy)
Anaphylaxis

28

Unintentional weight loss

Malignancy
Depression
Hyperthyroidism
GI - malabsorption, celiac, IBD

29

Pruritis

Hyperbilirubinaemia of any cause.

30

Altered mental status (Delirium)

CNS - meningitis, stroke, increased intracranial pressure
Cardio/resp - shock, sepsis, hypoxia
Epilepsy - post ictal state, non-convulsive status epilepticus
Alcohol withdrawal
Medication and drugs - opiates, serotonin syndrome, neuroleptic malignant Syndrome

31

Ischaemic stroke

Local thrombosis of cerebral vessel (atherosclerosis)
Sickle cell disease
Atrial Fibrillation (i.e. cardiac embolus)
Carotid artery stenosis
Arterial dissection

32

Cardioembolic stroke

Atrial Fibrillation
Infective Endocarditis
Valvular heart disease/ prosthetic heart valve
Post MI
Paradoxical embolus (DVT + patent foramen ovale)

33

Meningitis in adults

Neisseria meningtidis (meningococcus)
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus)
Listeria monocytogenes
Tuberculosis
Viruses: enteoviruses (coxsackie), Herpes Simplex Virus, HIV

Fungi in immunocompromised

34

Secondary headache

Meningitis/meningiencephalitis
SAH
CO poisoning
Sinusitis
Acute ankle closure glaucoma
Dental causes
Temporal arteritis
Trigeminal neuralgia
Medication overuse
Brain tumour/space occupying lesion

35

Pericardial effusion

Viral
Autoimmune disease
Post MI
Malignant
Renal failure (uraemic pericarditis)

36

Hypoglycaemia

Insulin therapy
Addisons (adrenal insufficiency)
Alcoholism
Insulinoma
Liver failure

37

Adrenal insufficiency

Stoping steroids too quickly
Malignant infiltration of the adrenal gland
Infarction
Autoimmune destruction

38

Thyrotoxicosis

Autoimmune (graves)
Toxic multi modular goitre
Acute viral thyroiditis
Amiodarone

39

Pulmonary HT

CHF
Valvular heart disease
Lung disease - pulmonary fibrosis, COPD
Sleep apnea
Chronic PE