5. The Organization and Sequences of Cellular Genomes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 5. The Organization and Sequences of Cellular Genomes Deck (35):
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alternative splicing

The generation of different mRNAs by varying the pattern of pre-mRNA splicing.

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bioinformatics

The use of computational methods to analyze large amounts of biological data, such as genome sequences.

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CENP-A

centromeric H3

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centromere

A specialized chromosomal region that connects sister chromatids and attaches them to the mitotic spindle.

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chromatin

The fibrous complex of eukaryotic DNA and histone proteins.

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chromatosome

A chromatin subunit consisting of 166 base pairs of DNA wrapped around a histone core and held in place by a linker histone.

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DNA transposon

A transposable element that moves via a DNA intermediate.

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epigenetic inheritance

The transmission of information from parent to progeny that is not contained within the sequence of DNA.

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euchromatin

De-condensed, transcriptionally active interphase chromatin.

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gene

A functional unit of inheritance, corresponding to a segment of DNA that encodes a polypeptide or RNA Molecule.

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exon

A segment of a gene that is included in a spliced mRNA.

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gene family

A group of related genes that have arisen by duplication of a common ancestor.

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genome-wide association scan

A method of large-scale genome analysis used to identify genes responsible for inherited diseases.

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heterochromatin

Condensed, transcriptionally active chromatin.

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histone

Member of a family of proteins that package DNA in eukaryotic chromosomes.

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intron

A non-coding sequence that interrupts exons in a gene.

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kilobase

(kb) One thousand nucleotides or nucleotide base pairs

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kinetcochore

A specialized structure consisting of proteins attached to a centromere that mediates the attachment and movement of chromosomes along the mitotic spindle.

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LINE (long interspersed element)

Member of a family of highly repeated retrotransposons in mammalian genomes.

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megabase (Mb)

One million nucleotides or nucleotide base pairs.

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nucleosomes

The basic structural unit of chromatin consisting of DNA wrapped around a histone core.

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nucleosome core particle

Particle containing 146 base pairs of DNA wrapped around an octamer consisting of two molecules each of histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.

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open-reading frame

A stretch of nucleotide sequence that does not contain stop codons and can encode a polypeptide.

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processed pseudogene

A pseudogene that has arisen by reverse transcription of mRNA.

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pseudogene

A non-functional gene copy.

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retrotransposition

Movement of a transposable element via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate.

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retrotransposon

A transposable element that moves via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate.

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retrovirus-like element

A retrotransposon that is structurally similar to a retrovirus.

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RNA splicing

The joining of exons in a precursor RNA molecule.

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satellite DNA

Simple sequence repetitive DNA with a buoyant density differing from the bulk of genomic DNA.

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simple-sequence repeat

Member of a class of DNA sequences consisting of tandem arrays of thousands of compies of short sequences.

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SINE (short interspersed element)

Member of a family of highly repeated retrotransposons in mammalian genomes.

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systems biology

A new field of biology in which large-scale experimental approaches are combined with quantitative analysis and modeling to study complex biological systems.

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telomerase

A reverse transcriptase that synthesizes telomeric repeat sequences at the ends of chromosomes from its own RNA template.

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telomere

A repeat of simple-sequence DNA that maintains the ends of linear chromosomes.