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Flashcards in Hepatology Deck (22)
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1
Q

Pre-Hepatic Jaundice

A

Too much bilirubin made
Causes= haemolytic anaemia
Bilirubin unconjugated so bound to albumin
Get yellow eyes and skin

2
Q

Hepatic Jaundice

A

Too few hepatocytes
Causes= acute injury, late liver disease
Conjugated bilirubin
Yellow eyes and dark urine

3
Q

Post-Hepatic Jaundice

A

Bile duct obstruction
Causes= stone, stricture, tumour
Conjugated bilirubin
Yellow eyes, dark urine and pale stools

4
Q

Jaundice Pathology

A

Bile+ copper in liver
Portal tract bigger
Oedema
More ducts

5
Q

Viral Hepatitis

A

Causes= Hep ABCDE, CMV, HSV

Acute or Chronic

6
Q

Hep A

A

Faecal-oral transmission
Get jaundice
Only acute

7
Q

Hep B

A

Parenteral transmission
Get jaundice
Some goes chronic
Treatment= IFN+ lamivudine

8
Q

Hep C

A

Parenteral transmission
Most goes chronic
Treated with IFN+ ribavarin

9
Q

Paracetamol Toxicity

A

Get necrosis due to NAPQI

Treated with N-acetyl cysteine or glutathione

10
Q

Acute Hepatitis

A

Severity depends on amount of damaged hepatocytes and liver regeneration
Causes= viral, drugs, AI, alcohol
Get inflam and necrosis

11
Q

Chronic Hepatitis

A

Causes= viral, AI, drugs, fatty liver disease, alcohol, alpha 1 antitrypsin, copper overload (Wilson’s), clotting probs
Scar tissues link and form nodules

12
Q

Alcoholic Liver Disease

A

Get steatosis, inflam, fibrosed portal tracts and big hepatocytes

13
Q

Non- Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

A

Get steatosis, steatohepatitis, cirrhosis

Associated with obesity, DM, drugs, hyperlipidaemia

14
Q

Cirrhosis

A

Venous blood bypasses sinusoids
Symps= oedema, bruising, muscle wasting, ascites, jaundice
Portal hypertension can cause varices, splenomegaly and piles
Causes= alcohol, steatohepatitis, Hep B/C, AI, metabolic
Can cause cancer

15
Q

Hepatocellular Carcinoma

A

RF= cirrhosis, obesity, alcohol, viral Hep
Raised alpho-feto protein
Expansile, green, soft nodules
Cancer cells make bile

16
Q

Metastases

A

Few large nodules= large bowel

Multinodular= lung, pancreas, breast, stomach, melanoma

17
Q

Cholangiocarcinoma

A

Adenocarcinoma from bile ducts

Intrahepatic or perihilar

18
Q

Gallstones

A
RFs= female, obese, DM
Types= cholesterol, pigment, mixed, calcium
Comps= cholecystitis, cancer, jaundice, cholangitis, pancreatitis
19
Q

Acute Pancreatitis

A

Symps= pain, vom
Have raised serum amylase
Causes= gallstones, alcohol, idiopathic, infections, high calcium
Get fat necrosis, swelling, haemorrhage
Comps= shock, coagulopathy, haemorrhage, pseuocysts

20
Q

Chronic Pancreatitis

A

Tissue replaced by fat fibrosis and calculi
Exocrine tissue goes first
Causes= alcohol, smoking, drugs, infections, genetic, duct obstruction, recurrent acute, AI
Comps= fat malabsorption, DM, pseudocysts, stenosis of ducts

21
Q

Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

A
Causes= smoking, alcohol, red meat, obesity, hereditary, chronic pancreatitis, DM
Mets= liver, peritoneum, lung
22
Q

Neuroendocrine Pancreatic Tumour

A

Benign or malignant

Encapsulated and solid