Paper 1 - German and Italian Expansion Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Paper 1 - German and Italian Expansion Deck (40)
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1
Q

How did Naziism spark German expansionism?

A

Their goal was to unite all Germans (regardless of where they were from) besides Jews, minorities, etc.

2
Q

What was lebensraum?

A

Germany’s belief that they had a “right” to expand. Based off of the racism of Germans > all others.

3
Q

What was the Munich Putsch?

A

Hitler’s attempted march on Munich to take government buildings, gain popularity, and gain power.

4
Q

What were the effects of the Munich Putsch?

A

It gained national attention, Hitler got to rant, became a key piece of Nazi lore, and Hitler wrote Mein Kampf while in prison.

5
Q

What was the “stab in the back” myth?

A

German nationalists and soldiers were upset with the armistice. A myth was created that the new government was full of Jews and commies trying to stage a coup.

6
Q

What was the impact of the Treaty of Versailles?

A

Germans did not like how they were treated from this. It tried to ensure that Germany was no longer a threat.

7
Q

How did Hitler rise to power?

A

He was appointed chancellor and when Hindenburg died, he merged the offices of president and chancellor.

8
Q

What happened at the World Disarmament Conference?

A

Germany withdraws from the League of Nations which paves the way for their future violation of treaties.

9
Q

How did Hitler feel expansionism would help Germany?

A

It would allow for Lebensraum (living space) as well as let the nation gain “autarky” boosting economic growth.

10
Q

What was the significance of the Poland-Germany nonaggression pact?

A

France had to look for other allies and Germany was protected (a little) from Russia.

11
Q

What was the Dolfuss Affair?

A

Nazis assassinated Austria’s prime minister Dolfus and tried to come in to save the day in order to gain Austria too. Italy mobilizes, so Germany does not continue.

12
Q

What was the Stresa Front?

A

Britain, France, and Italy align. This eventually fell apart because of the distance between the nations.

13
Q

What was the Franco-Soviet Alliance?

A

France and Russia aligned against Germany. France also created the Maginot line of fortifications against Germany.

14
Q

What was the significance of the remilitarization of the Rhineland?

A

Britain and France condemn it, but do not do anything because they are not ready for war.

15
Q

How did the Rome-Berlin Axis form?

A

Hitler and Mussolini bonded over anti-commie, Spanish Civil War, and anti-Brit/Franco Bloc.

16
Q

What was the Anschluss with Austria?

A

Hitler demands Austria release German prisoners and imposition of a Nazi leader. To stave off invasion, Austria agrees. A plebiscite found 99% were for it.

17
Q

What was the Sudeten Crisis?

A

Ethnic Germans in Sudetenland (in Czechoslovakia) wanted Germ. annexation. So did Hitler. He gave a list of demands and mobilized, forcing Czecho. to agree to more and more.

18
Q

What was the Munich Agreement?

A

Mussolini asked for peace talks that end in an agreement for Germany to annex the Sudetenland.

19
Q

What were the results of the Sudeten Crisis?

A

Brit/Franc publics relieved at avoiding war. Czecho. was slowly dismantled b/c Munich Agreement took away 70% of their industry and 1/3 of their population. Later Hitler fully took over Czecho.

20
Q

What was the Polish Crisis?

A

Ethnic Germans advocated for annexation. Poland says no and so does the Brit/Franc Bloc. Germ. invades and Brit/Franc declare war.

21
Q

What was the Pact of Steel?

A

Hitler and Mussolini completely aligned in May 1939.

22
Q

What was the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact?

A

Germany and Russia would not go to war and that they could split Poland.

23
Q

What was the response to Poland’s invasion?

A

A peace conference was called but Brit rejects it. Brit/France end up declaring war on Germany. Germany speeds up Poland invasion. WWII starts.

24
Q

What was the impact of WWI on Italy?

A

It became politically divided and the economy went down. This meant that communism grew.

25
Q

Why did support for Fascism grow in Italy after WWI?

A

People were full of national pride and patriotism at the victory (Italy was with allies then). The rise in communism meant that people went to communism’s enemy: Fascism. The church supported them.

26
Q

How did Mussolini consolidate is power?

A

Intimidation and violence increased parliamentary representation from 7%-66%. OVRA (secret police) established.

27
Q

What factors influenced Mussolini’s foreign policy?

A

He wanted to build an empire to spread fascism and wanted to strengthen his economy.

28
Q

What were the tenants of Fascism?

A

A strong empire, nationalism, anti-commie. Followers were called “blackshirts”.

29
Q

What were Mussolini’s foreign policy goals?

A

Wanted to dominate the Balkans and Mediterranean, wanted to build an empire in Africa, spread fascism, and gain Autarky.

30
Q

How did domestic economic issues impact Italy’s foreign policy?

A

The Great Depression destroyed the economy. Measures are taken to provide relief. Abysinnian crisis likely an outcome.

31
Q

Why did Mussolini invade Abyssinia?

A

He had nationalist ambitions (revenge for the Battle of Adwa in 1896). Since it wasn’t colonized, he assumed it was good for his taking. To build his African empire. He had a fear of losing power to Germany in Europe.

32
Q

What were the results of the Abyssinian War?

A

Italy annexed Abyssinia and won the war. The League of Nations did nothing about it –> telling the world that the League was worthless.

33
Q

Why did Italy intervene in the Spanish Civil War?

A

They were confident in their military ability. Mussolini also wanted to weaken France.

34
Q

What were the results of Italy’s intervention in the Spanish Civil War?

A

Massive econ. cost to Italy prompting increased trade with Germany. Italy’s military was weakened and this was exposed to the world. Italy drew closer to Germany.

35
Q

What was Italy’s role in the Sudetenland Crisis?

A

To make Italy look like a peace-making nation (Munich Agreement). Mussolini really acted as a German puppet.

36
Q

Why did Italy invade Albania?

A

Mussolini wanted the same success as Hitler had in Czecho. (it was really worthless because they already had influence there)

37
Q

Why did Italy remain non-belligerent in 1939?

A

It would not be ready for war until 1943 and may have gone with Britain and France rather than Germany (might have).

38
Q

Why did Italy join WWII in June 1940?

A

Germany owed $40 million to Italy and paid through coal shipments that Brit/Franc blocked. Italy declared war on Brit/Franc because it wanted its money.

39
Q

What was the Hoare-Laval Pact?

A

The League of Nation’s failed attempt at solving the Abyssinian Crisis. Mussolini would get 2/3 and Selassie would get 1/3 of Abyssinia.

40
Q

What were the effects of the Abyssinian Crisis on Italy?

A

Italian East Africa was established. Italy was further isolated from Western Economies. Muss. consolidated power and used propaganda to gain popularity. Italy became closer to Germ/Jap and further away from Brit/Franc.