What was the importance of the Meiji restoration?
It was the unification and industrialization of Japan into a modern state.
How did radical nationalism rise in Japan?
The new Meiji system emphasized loyalty to the emperor and the central government. Past isolationism also led to ultranationalism and some racism. Defeating Russia in 1904 also boosted self-esteem.
What was the First Sino-Japanese War?
1894-1895. Manchuria eventually occupied by Japan.
What sparked Japanese expansion in the 1920s?
Industrialism required more resources and the Zaibatsu pushed for military expansion.
What happened to Japanese politics in the Taisho Era?
Fear of comm. led to radical fascism.
What was the main cause for the deterioration of Jap-US relations between WWI and WWII?
The US put immigration restrictions on Japanese people in 1927.
What was the Showa Restoration?
With the Great Depression furthering economic crisis, some suggest that Japan should look abroad for solutions.
What were the main reasons for Japanese expansion?
Nationalism, militarism (ind. needed more resources), economy, defense (Manchuria as a buffer with USSR), and their history of expansion as a nation.
What were the three phases of Japanese Expansion?
Manchurian Annexation, the 2nd Sino-Japanese War, and World War II.
What was the Manchurian Crisis?
Chinese locals blamed for a (Jap.) explosion. This was used as a rationale for Japan to help the Manchurian people against the Chinese rebels. Chiang Kai-Shek allowed it and so Manchuria was occupied and Manchukuo was declared in 1933.
What was the international response to the Manchurian Crisis?
The League denied its admission. No one really did anything about it because they were stuck with domestic issues as a result of the Great Depression.
How did the League of Nations respond to the Manchurian takeover?
Investigation. Found that Jap. was organized but took it unlawfully. They asked Jap. to withdraw from Manchukuo. Jap. resigns from the League.
What was the Second Sino-Japanese War?
Marco Polo Bridge Incident –> each side thought that the other fired first. Japan bombs coastal cities and marches towards the capital of Nanjing.
What was the Rape of Nanjing?
Japanese soldiers began to massacre given the three all’s: kill all, burn all, and loot all.
How did the 2nd Sino-Jap War impact Japan?
It took a lot longer than expected –> the economy was not prepared. Some questioned if it should continue or prepare for another conflict.
How did Germany respond to the 2nd Sino-Jap War?
The tripartite pact between Jap, Italy, and Germany.
Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941?
A US blockade seemed like a large threat and the negotiations over the embargoes placed on Japan would not do anything.