Sparkling Wines Flashcards

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1
Q

How are the bubbles in sparkling wine created

A

The bubbles in sparkling wines are created by dissolved carbon dioxide gas.

These bubbles can be added by pumping carbon dioxide through a wine, but most premium-quality sparkling-wine producers harness the carbon dioxide that is naturally created as a by-product of secondary fermentation.

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2
Q

What are the most common methods used to produce sparkling wine

A

Bottle fermentation and tank fermentation

Choice is driven by the style or flavours required

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3
Q

What style is the base wine used for sparkling wine

A

Dry, high acidity, low alcohol

Blended from different varieties, vintages or villages

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4
Q

What is the most common and highly regarded method of bottle fermentation

A

The traditional method

Sugar and yeast are added to the base wine and the bottle is sealed

Secondary fermentation takes place within the bottle

Used in the production of Cava and Champagne

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5
Q

What grapes is the base wine for champagne made from

A

Chardonnay, pinot noir and meunier

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6
Q

What is the minimum legal amount of ageing for champagne

A

12 months

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7
Q

What is the sign of a good quality champagne

A

Complex flavours of green fruit (apple), citrus (lemon) and autolytic notes (toasted bread, biscuit)

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8
Q

What is a vintage champagne

A

Only made in exceptional vintage years

Aged in contact with lees for a long period and extended bottle ageing after disgorgement

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9
Q

What is Cava

A

The Spanish term for traditional method sparkling wine

The majority comes from the Catalunya region

Made from local Spanish grapes, Chardonnay and Pinot Noir are also permitted

Harvested early to retain acidity

Light flavours of apple and pear

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10
Q

What is the process for making traditional method sparkling wine

A
  1. Second fermentation and yeast autolysis
  2. Riddling
  3. Disgorgement
  4. Dosage
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11
Q

What is dosage

A

The addition of wine and sugar (liqueur d expedition)

The dosage determines the final sweetness of the wine

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12
Q

When is the tank method often used

A

When the winemaker doesn’t wish to add autolytic flavours to the wine

This may be the case if the base wine is made from aromatic grape varieties

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13
Q

How are the lees removed if using the tank method

A

By filtration

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14
Q

What is the Asti method

A

A variation of the tank method

Used to make the sweet low alcohol sparkling wines of Asti DOCG

Juice (not base wine) is put in a pressurised tank with yeast to ferment, initially the CO2 is allowed to escape, then the tank is sealed and the CO2 creates bubbles

The fermentation is stopped by filtering out the yeasts before all the sugar has been converted to alcohol

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15
Q

What is Prosecco

A

A sparkling wine from the north east of Italy

Typically made using the tank method

Made from Glera grape

Light to medium body, apple and melon flavours

Typically dry or off dry

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16
Q

What is Asti

A

A sweet, fruit and light bodied wine from Piemonte

Made with the Moscato grape

Floral , grape, peach, pear flavours

Usually fully sparkling