Acute & Chronic Inflammation (Daniels) Flashcards Preview

CMBM Exam 4 CL > Acute & Chronic Inflammation (Daniels) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Acute & Chronic Inflammation (Daniels) Deck (49):
1

What are the 3 purposes of inflammation?

Contain, neutralize, remove

2

What is inflammation?

Defensive host response to foreign invaders and necrotic tissue that is also capable of causing tissue damage itself.

3

What are the 3 elements at play in inflammation?

Blood vessels, cells, humoral factors

4

What are the 5 events involving blood vessels during inflammation?

Transient vasoconstriction
Vasodilation
Blood stasis
Increased venule permeability
Edema

5

What are the 2 events involving cells during inflammation?

Protein exits vessels (dec. IV osmotic pressure, inc. IV hydrostatic pressure)
Endothelial gaps form at intercellular junctions (immediate transient response)

6

What humoral factors are involved during inflammation?

Histamine (gaps), bradykinin, leukotrienes, substance P

7

Which kind of inflammation is a localized protective response elicited by injury or destruction of tissues, serving to destroy, dilute, or wall off both the injurous agent and injured tissue?

Acute inflammation

8

What kind of infiltrate will you encounter with acute inflammation?

Mainly neutrophils

9

What stimulates acute inflammation?

Infections - bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic
Microbial toxins
Tissue necrosis - ischemia, trauma, physical/chemical injury
Foreign bodies
Immune reactions (hypersensitivity)

10

What are the main components of acute inflammation?

Vasodilation
Vascular leakage & edema
Leukocyte emigration to extravascular tissues

11

Which kind of inflammation is of prolonged duration (weeks or months) and has active inflammation, tissue destruction, and attempts at repair happening simultaneously?

Chronic inflammation

12

What stimulates chronic inflammation?

Persistent infections (AFB, fungi, treponemes)
Prolonged exposure to potentially toxic agents
Autoimmunity

13

What kind of infiltrate will you encounter with chronic inflammation?

Mononuclear cells - macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells

14

What are characteristics of chronic inflammation?

Mononuclear cell infiltrate - especially macrophages
Tissue destruction
Repair involving angiogenesis and fibrosis

15

What are key macrophage events in chronic inflammation?

Recruitment from circulation
Local proliferation
Immobilization
Differentiation

16

Macrophages have specific names when they come from specific parts of the body. What are these names, and what part of the body do these cells come from?

Brain - microglia
Liver - Kupffer
Lung - alveolar macrophage
Bone - osteoclast

17

What are the 5 cardinal signs of inflammation?

Heat/Calor
Redness/Rubor
Swelling/Tumor
Pain/Dolar
Loss of function/Funtio laesa

18

What event happens at each cardinal sign of inflammation?

Calor - vasodilation
Rubor - vasodilation
Tumor - vascular permeability
Dolar - mediator release/PMNs
Functio laesa - loss of function

19

An abnormal excess accumulation of serous fluid in connective tissue or in a serous cavity.

Edema

20

Excess blood in a body part (as from an increased flow of blood due to vasodilation)

Hyperemia

21

A break in skin or mucous membrane with loss of surface tissue, disintegration and necrosis of epithelial tissue, and often pus.

Ulcer

22

Any class of immunoregulatory proteins (e.g. inerleukin, TNF, interferon) that is secreted by cells especially of the immune system.

Cytokines

23

Orientation or movement of an organism or cell in relation to chemical agents.

Chemotaxis

24

Passage of blood cells through capillary walls into the tissues.

Emigration/Diapedesis

25

Act or process of forming a margin, specifically the adhesion of white blood cells to the walls of damaged blood vessels.

Margination

26

Process of modifying (as a bacterium) by the action of opsonins.

Opsonization

27

Lining of leukocytes in the endothelium in a tightly packed formation.

Pavementing

28

Engulfing and usually the destruction of particulate matter by phagocytes; important bodily defense mechanism against infection by microorganisms and against occlusion of mucous surfaces or tissues by foreign particles and tissue debris.

Phagocytosis

29

Passage of serum/other bodily fluid through membrane/tissue surface as a result of a difference in hydrostatic pressure.

Transudation

30

Escape of fluid, cells, and cellular debris from blood vessels and their deposition in or on tissue, usually as a result of inflammation.

Exudation

31

Large family of chemotactic cytokines which stimulate leukocyte movement.

Chemokines

32

Small nodular delimited aggregation of mononuclear inflammatory cells.

Granuloma

33

Composed of granulomas.

Granulomatous

34

Condition characterized by an elevated number of white cells in the blood.

Leukocytosis

35

General physical wasting and malnutrition usually associated with chronic disease.

Cachexi

36

Any of several hemorrhagic states characterized by patches of purplish discoloration resulting from extravasation of blood into the skin and mucous membranes.

Purpura

37

Fluid substance that has passed through a membrane or has been extruded from a tissue.

Transudate

38

Fluid with high content of protein and cellular debris which has escaped from blood vessels and has been deposited in tissues or on tissue surfaces, usually as a result of inflammation.

Exudate

39

Discharge or escape (e.g. blood) from a vessel into the tissues.

Extravasation

40

Escape of a fluid from blood vessels or lymphatics into tissues or a cavity.

Effusion

41

Consisting of serum and blood.

Serosanguineous

42

Pertaining to or of the nature of fibrin.

Fibrinous

43

Containing, discharging, or causing the production of pus.

Purulent

44

Forming pus.

Suppurative

45

Infection of the lung that can be caused by any class of organism known to cause human infections (e.g. bacteria, amoebae, fungi, parasites).

Pneumonia

46

Inflammation of lung tissue.

Pneumonitis

47

Inflammation of alveoli.

Alveolitis

48

Inflammation of kidney.

Nephritis

49

Any kidney disease characterized by purely degenerative lesions of renal tubules.

Nephrosis