Flashcards in Acute & Chronic Inflammation (Daniels) Deck (49):
What are the 3 purposes of inflammation?
Contain, neutralize, remove
What is inflammation?
Defensive host response to foreign invaders and necrotic tissue that is also capable of causing tissue damage itself.
What are the 3 elements at play in inflammation?
Blood vessels, cells, humoral factors
What are the 5 events involving blood vessels during inflammation?
Increased venule permeability
What are the 2 events involving cells during inflammation?
Protein exits vessels (dec. IV osmotic pressure, inc. IV hydrostatic pressure)
Endothelial gaps form at intercellular junctions (immediate transient response)
What humoral factors are involved during inflammation?
Histamine (gaps), bradykinin, leukotrienes, substance P
Which kind of inflammation is a localized protective response elicited by injury or destruction of tissues, serving to destroy, dilute, or wall off both the injurous agent and injured tissue?
What kind of infiltrate will you encounter with acute inflammation?
What stimulates acute inflammation?
Infections - bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic
Tissue necrosis - ischemia, trauma, physical/chemical injury
Immune reactions (hypersensitivity)
What are the main components of acute inflammation?
Vascular leakage & edema
Leukocyte emigration to extravascular tissues
Which kind of inflammation is of prolonged duration (weeks or months) and has active inflammation, tissue destruction, and attempts at repair happening simultaneously?
What stimulates chronic inflammation?
Persistent infections (AFB, fungi, treponemes)
Prolonged exposure to potentially toxic agents
What kind of infiltrate will you encounter with chronic inflammation?
Mononuclear cells - macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells
What are characteristics of chronic inflammation?
Mononuclear cell infiltrate - especially macrophages
Repair involving angiogenesis and fibrosis
What are key macrophage events in chronic inflammation?
Recruitment from circulation
Macrophages have specific names when they come from specific parts of the body. What are these names, and what part of the body do these cells come from?
Brain - microglia
Liver - Kupffer
Lung - alveolar macrophage
Bone - osteoclast
What are the 5 cardinal signs of inflammation?
Loss of function/Funtio laesa
What event happens at each cardinal sign of inflammation?
Calor - vasodilation
Rubor - vasodilation
Tumor - vascular permeability
Dolar - mediator release/PMNs
Functio laesa - loss of function
An abnormal excess accumulation of serous fluid in connective tissue or in a serous cavity.
Excess blood in a body part (as from an increased flow of blood due to vasodilation)
A break in skin or mucous membrane with loss of surface tissue, disintegration and necrosis of epithelial tissue, and often pus.
Any class of immunoregulatory proteins (e.g. inerleukin, TNF, interferon) that is secreted by cells especially of the immune system.
Orientation or movement of an organism or cell in relation to chemical agents.
Passage of blood cells through capillary walls into the tissues.
Act or process of forming a margin, specifically the adhesion of white blood cells to the walls of damaged blood vessels.
Process of modifying (as a bacterium) by the action of opsonins.
Lining of leukocytes in the endothelium in a tightly packed formation.
Engulfing and usually the destruction of particulate matter by phagocytes; important bodily defense mechanism against infection by microorganisms and against occlusion of mucous surfaces or tissues by foreign particles and tissue debris.
Passage of serum/other bodily fluid through membrane/tissue surface as a result of a difference in hydrostatic pressure.
Escape of fluid, cells, and cellular debris from blood vessels and their deposition in or on tissue, usually as a result of inflammation.
Large family of chemotactic cytokines which stimulate leukocyte movement.
Small nodular delimited aggregation of mononuclear inflammatory cells.
Composed of granulomas.
Condition characterized by an elevated number of white cells in the blood.
General physical wasting and malnutrition usually associated with chronic disease.
Any of several hemorrhagic states characterized by patches of purplish discoloration resulting from extravasation of blood into the skin and mucous membranes.
Fluid substance that has passed through a membrane or has been extruded from a tissue.
Fluid with high content of protein and cellular debris which has escaped from blood vessels and has been deposited in tissues or on tissue surfaces, usually as a result of inflammation.
Discharge or escape (e.g. blood) from a vessel into the tissues.
Escape of a fluid from blood vessels or lymphatics into tissues or a cavity.
Consisting of serum and blood.
Pertaining to or of the nature of fibrin.
Containing, discharging, or causing the production of pus.
Infection of the lung that can be caused by any class of organism known to cause human infections (e.g. bacteria, amoebae, fungi, parasites).
Inflammation of lung tissue.
Inflammation of alveoli.
Inflammation of kidney.