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Flashcards in Adjusting to Modern Life Deck (40):
1

Define: Psychology

the science that studies behavior and the physiological and mental processes that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems”.

2

Define: Adjustment

the psychological processes through which people manage or cope with the demands and challenges of everyday life”.

3

Define: Empiricism

the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation”.

4

What is the conclusions of sciencifc psychology?

are based on careful, systemic observation rather than speculation or “common sense”.

5

What are the advantages of the sciencific approach?

Clarity and precision

6

Define: Experiment

a research method in which the investigator manipulates one (independent) variable under carefully controlled conditions, and observes whether any changes occur in a second (dependent) variable as a result”.

7

Experimental research is?

Looking for a cause

8

Define: an Independent Variable

is a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable”.
It is the variable the researcher manipulates in the experiment.

9

Define: a Dependent Variable

is the variable that is thought to be affected by the manipulations of the independent variable”.
It is usually a measurement of behavior.

10

Define: the Experimental Group

consists of the subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable”.
In Schachter’s (1959) study, the experimental group was told the shocks would be painful.

11

Define: the Control Group

consists of similar subjects who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group”.

12

What is the advantage of using experiments?

precise control allows cause and effect conclusions to be drawn.

13

What is the disadvantage of using experiments?

there are some variables of interest that cannot, for ethical reasons, be manipulated in an experiment.

14

Correlational Research is

Looking for links

15

A correlation exists when?

two variables are related to each other

16

Define: A correlation coefficient

a numerical index of the degree of relationship that exists between two variables”.

17

What two piece of information does a correlation coefficient provide?

How strongly related two variables are.
The direction (positive or negative) of the relationship.

18

A Positive Correlation

indicate that two variables covary in the same direction”.

19

A Negative Correlation

indicate that two variables covary in the opposite direction”.

20

In a Positive Correlation what direction do the two variable move?

Increase and decrease together
Same direction

21

In a Negative Correlation what direction do the two variables move?

One variable increase and the other variable decrease. Opposite direction

22

What are the three command methods of finding correlation between variables?

Naturalistic observation
Case Studies
Surveys

23

Define: Naturalistic observation

careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects”.

24

Define: Case Studies

in-depth investigation of an individual participant

25

Define: Surveys

structured questionnaires designed to solicit information about specific aspects of participants’ behavior”.

26

What are advantages of using correlations

They allow us to explore variables not suitable for/or ethical to manipulate in experimental research.

27

What are disadvantages of using correlations?

Correlations only tell us that two variables are related, not how the two variables are related.

28

Wha is not that important to people happiness?

Money
Age
Gender
Parenthood
Intelligence
phsyical attractiveness

29

What as a moderate impact on are happiness?

Health
Social Activity
Religion
Culture

30

What is very important to are happiness?

Love
Work
Genetics

31

Technological advances have not led to perceptible improvement in our collective health and happiness. This statement defines
A. escape from freedom
B. the point/countpoint phenomenon
C. modern society
D. the paradox of progress

D. the paradox of progress

32

Barry Schwartz (2004) argues that
A. life choices have increased dramatically in modern society
B. the abundance of life choices has unexpected costs.
C. an overabundance of choices increases the potential for rumination and postdecision regret.
D. all of the above are true

D. all of the above are true

33

Whch of the following is not offered in the text as a criticism of self-help books?
A. They are infrequently based on solid research.
B. Most don't provide explicit directions for changing behavior.
C. the topics they cover are often quite narrow.
D.Many are dominated by psychobabble.

C. the topics they cover are often quite narrow.

34

The adaptation of animals when environments chnge is similar to ____ in humans.
A. orientation
B. assimilation
C. evolution
D. adjustment

D. adjustment

35

An experiment is a research method in which the investigator manipulates the _____ variable and observes whether changes occur in a (an) _____ variable as a result.
A Independent; dependent
B. control; experimental
C. experimental; control
D. Dependent; independent

A Independent; dependent

36

A researcher wants to determine whether a certain diet causes children to learn better in school in the study, the independent variable is
A. the type of diet
B. a mearsure of learning performance
C. the age of grade level of the children
D. the intelligence level of the children

A. the type of diet

37

A psychologist llected background information about a psychopathic killer, talked to him and people who knew him, and gave hm psychological tests. which research method was she using?
A. case study
B. naturalistic observation
Csurvey
D experiment

A. case study

38

The principal advantage of experimental research is that
A. it has a scientific basis and is therefore convincing to people
B. experiments replicate real-life situations.
C an experiment can be designed for any research problem.
D. it allows the researcher to draw cause-and-effect conclusions.

D. it allows the researcher to draw cause-and-effect conclusions.

39

Research has shown that which of the following is moderately correlatedwith happiness?
A. income
B. intelligence
C. parenthood
D. social activity

D. social activity

40

A good reason for taking notes in your own words, rather than verbatim, that
A. most lectureers are quite wordy.
B. Translating on the spot is good mental exercise.
C. it reduces the likelihood that you"ll later engage in plagiarism
D. it forces you to assimilate the information in a way that makes sense to you.

D. it forces you to assimilate the information in a way that makes sense to you.