Alternative Land Disposal - Exam II Material Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Alternative Land Disposal - Exam II Material Deck (48):
1

Environmental Effects of Mining

1. Dmg to land
2. Health and Safety of Workers
3. Dust Pollution
4. Noise Pollution
5. Release of Toxic Substances

2

Environmental Effects of Mining: Smelters

- On-site processing
- Emission of SO2, NOx, and CO2
- Particulate matter carrying metals

3

Injection of hot fluids, acid solutions, or microbes

In-situ mining

4

Bulk material removed in mining that is generally used for backfilling in modern mines

Waste Dumps

5

Oxidation of sulfide minerals, releases metals and free hydrogen into solution

Acid Mine Drainage

6

Factors for Disposal / Storage in Conventional Mines

1. Hydrologic Conditions
2. Depth
3. Mine Stability
4. Safety

7

Factors to be considered for Radioactive Waste Disposal

1. Geologic Stability
2. Natural Resources
3. Hydrogeology
4. Rock Characteristics
5. Depth
6. Geo-Chemical Resistance

8

Repository for transuranic waste, suited for housing high grade waste in the future
**Located in New Mexico

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

9

WIPP Geology

- 2150 feet below surface
- Salt is geologically stable and flows plastically under high pressure
- Region is tectonically stable
- Arid env w/ little precip.

10

WIPP History

Operations began in 1999
Expected lifespan until 2070

11

Facilities designed to hold an accumulation of liquid wastes or wastes containing free liquids

Surface impoundments

12

Used as treatment facilities where incoming and outflowing wastes are either in steady state or in an intermittent state.

Treatment-Type Surface Impoundment

13

Storage structures that are designed to accommodate some liquid surge / equalization

Storage-Type Surface Impoundment

14

Waste evaporation and disposal impoundments

Nondischarge-Type Surface Impoundment

15

Cover impoundments during rainy season, uncover during the dry season

Removable Covers

16

Float directly upon waste product and move up and down with product
**Large impoundments

Floating Covers

17

Geomembrane fixed at upper edge of impoundment that is domed towards center
** Small impoundments

Fixed Cover

18

Removal, sampling to verify decontamination and backfilling

Clean Closure

19

Treatment of contaminated media at site followed by installation of a final cover over the treated waste

In-Place Closure

20

Practice of using soils as a medium for the simultaneous disposal and treatment of hazardous waste

Land Farming

21

What is land farming best suited for?

- Petroleum wastes
- Sewage sludge

22

Goal of land farming?

To degrade, transform and immobolize waste through natural biodegredation

23

Disposal of waste products into geologic formations down boreholes

Deep Well Injection

24

Injection of hazardous / nonhazardous waste from industrial / municipal waste into a geologic formation

Class I Well

25

Petroleum exploration and injection of formation fluids brought up during petroleum production and enhanced recovery of petroleum

Class II Well

26

Wells used for mineral extraction, including solution mining

Class III Wells

27

Injection for disposal of radioactive or HW into or above USDW

Class IV Wells

28

All other wells that do not fit into the 4 other classes of injection

Class V Wells

29

The separation of wastewater into a treated effluent that can be safely released into the environment and solid waste or sludge

Sewage Treatment

30

Household wastewater that includes feces and urine

Blackwater

31

Any household wastewater that does not include feces or urine

Greywater

32

Screening to remove of large items that might clog pumps and pipes; settling

Pretreatment

33

Sedimentation tanks used to separate sludge

Primary Treatment

34

Aerobic microbes are used to degrade sewage water

Secondary Treatment

35

Additional clarification of water through use of filtration

Tertiary Treatment

36

Treatment to reduce the number of microorganisms that are released back into the env.

Disinfection

37

25% of the US population is not on a municipal sewage system. What do they use instead?

Septic Tank System

38

Domestic sewage treatment that involves aerobic degradation of waste instead of he typical anaerobic septic systems

Aerobic Treatment System

39

What is the most common preservative used today?

Formalin

40

Outer enclosure that surrounds the casket made of concrete, plastic or metal

Burial Vault

41

Side and cover cap for casket to prevent grave collapse

Burial Liner

42

Common from the 18th to the early 20th century, where fluids were drained and replaced in order to transport soldiers home

Arsenic preservation

43

High temperature waste treatment system through combustion of organic materials and / or substances

Incineration

44

What class of wells is associated with petroleum exploration and injection of formation fluids brought up during petroleum production and enhanced recovery of petroleum?

Class II

45

What is the name of the only active underground disposal facility for transuranic waste in the U.S.?

WIPP

46

What type of minin operation is conducted most often to extract lignite in East Texas?

Open pit

47

What type of mining uses injection of hot fluids to melt minerals in the subsurface that are then pumped to the surface and precipitated?

In situ

48

What term describes temporary, subsurface storage facilities for hazardous waste, military waste, and radioactive waste that are usually composed of reinforced concrete with liners depending on purpose?

Concrete vaults and Bunkers