Flashcards in Alternative Land Disposal - Exam II Material Deck (48):
Environmental Effects of Mining
1. Dmg to land
2. Health and Safety of Workers
3. Dust Pollution
4. Noise Pollution
5. Release of Toxic Substances
Environmental Effects of Mining: Smelters
- On-site processing
- Emission of SO2, NOx, and CO2
- Particulate matter carrying metals
Injection of hot fluids, acid solutions, or microbes
Bulk material removed in mining that is generally used for backfilling in modern mines
Oxidation of sulfide minerals, releases metals and free hydrogen into solution
Acid Mine Drainage
Factors for Disposal / Storage in Conventional Mines
1. Hydrologic Conditions
3. Mine Stability
Factors to be considered for Radioactive Waste Disposal
1. Geologic Stability
2. Natural Resources
4. Rock Characteristics
6. Geo-Chemical Resistance
Repository for transuranic waste, suited for housing high grade waste in the future
**Located in New Mexico
Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)
- 2150 feet below surface
- Salt is geologically stable and flows plastically under high pressure
- Region is tectonically stable
- Arid env w/ little precip.
Operations began in 1999
Expected lifespan until 2070
Facilities designed to hold an accumulation of liquid wastes or wastes containing free liquids
Used as treatment facilities where incoming and outflowing wastes are either in steady state or in an intermittent state.
Treatment-Type Surface Impoundment
Storage structures that are designed to accommodate some liquid surge / equalization
Storage-Type Surface Impoundment
Waste evaporation and disposal impoundments
Nondischarge-Type Surface Impoundment
Cover impoundments during rainy season, uncover during the dry season
Float directly upon waste product and move up and down with product
Geomembrane fixed at upper edge of impoundment that is domed towards center
** Small impoundments
Removal, sampling to verify decontamination and backfilling
Treatment of contaminated media at site followed by installation of a final cover over the treated waste
Practice of using soils as a medium for the simultaneous disposal and treatment of hazardous waste
What is land farming best suited for?
- Petroleum wastes
- Sewage sludge
Goal of land farming?
To degrade, transform and immobolize waste through natural biodegredation
Disposal of waste products into geologic formations down boreholes
Deep Well Injection
Injection of hazardous / nonhazardous waste from industrial / municipal waste into a geologic formation
Class I Well
Petroleum exploration and injection of formation fluids brought up during petroleum production and enhanced recovery of petroleum
Class II Well
Wells used for mineral extraction, including solution mining
Class III Wells
Injection for disposal of radioactive or HW into or above USDW
Class IV Wells
All other wells that do not fit into the 4 other classes of injection
Class V Wells
The separation of wastewater into a treated effluent that can be safely released into the environment and solid waste or sludge
Household wastewater that includes feces and urine
Any household wastewater that does not include feces or urine
Screening to remove of large items that might clog pumps and pipes; settling
Sedimentation tanks used to separate sludge
Aerobic microbes are used to degrade sewage water
Additional clarification of water through use of filtration
Treatment to reduce the number of microorganisms that are released back into the env.
25% of the US population is not on a municipal sewage system. What do they use instead?
Septic Tank System
Domestic sewage treatment that involves aerobic degradation of waste instead of he typical anaerobic septic systems
Aerobic Treatment System
What is the most common preservative used today?
Outer enclosure that surrounds the casket made of concrete, plastic or metal
Side and cover cap for casket to prevent grave collapse
Common from the 18th to the early 20th century, where fluids were drained and replaced in order to transport soldiers home
High temperature waste treatment system through combustion of organic materials and / or substances
What class of wells is associated with petroleum exploration and injection of formation fluids brought up during petroleum production and enhanced recovery of petroleum?
What is the name of the only active underground disposal facility for transuranic waste in the U.S.?
What type of minin operation is conducted most often to extract lignite in East Texas?
What type of mining uses injection of hot fluids to melt minerals in the subsurface that are then pumped to the surface and precipitated?