Flashcards in Anatomical positions and bones of the body Deck (20):
Lateral means away from the midline of the body.
eg. ears are lateral to eyes.
Medial means close to the midline of the body.
eg. nose is medial to ears.
Proximal refers to a body part that is close to its attachment point.
eg. elbow is proximal to wrist because it's closer to shoulder joint.
Refers to a body part that that is further away from the point of attachment than another.
eg. the wrist is distal to forearm flexors.
Refers to a body part that is closer to the head than another.
eg. shoulder is superior to elbow.
Refers to a body part that is closer to the feet than another part.
eg. knee is inferior to hip.
Refers to the front of the body.
eg. pectorals are anterior to latissimus dorsi.
Refers to the back of the body.
eg. hamstrings are posterior to quadriceps.
What is the axial skeleton? (5)
Racing caterpillars swim very fast
Contains bones through the middle of the body.
Cranium, sternum, ribs, vertebral column, facial bones.
What is the appendicular skeleton? (5) SPLAC
Consists of the bones that support the appendages.
Arms, legs, pelvis, scapula, clavicle.
How is the vertebral column made up?
Cervical vertebrae: first two are atlas and axis, C7
Thoracic vertebrae: T12
Lumbar vertebrae: L5
Sacrum: 5 fused
Coccyx: 4 fused
What is the importance of the vertebral column?
95% of the movement we make involves the vertebral column.
What are some facts about the skeletal system?
- 206 bones
- bones are capable of growth and repair
- bone growth usually ends after teen years
What are the functions of the skeletal system? (5)
- provides framework: solid support, counteracts forces of gravity
- provides movement: attachment site for muscles
- provides protection: protects vital organs eg. ribcage
- production of red blood cell formation: redbloodcells produced marrow of long bones
- mineral storage: bones store minerals eg. Ca, P, Na,K.
What are the different types of bones?
- long bones
- short bones
- flat bones
- irregular bones
- sesamoid bones
What is a long bone?
A bone that is longer than it is wider. They are hollow shafted and contain marrow.
eg. humerus and femur
What is a short bone?
A bone that is roughly the same width as it is length.
eg. carpals and tarsals
What is a flat bone?
A bone that has a flat area for muscle attachment. They enclose cavities for protection.
eg. scapula and sternum
What is an irregular bone?
A bone that has no regular shape characteristics.
eg. facial bones and vertebrae