Flashcards in Anatomy of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Deck (41):
What is a nucleus?
A group of neuronal cell bodies grouped together in a tight area
What is the outer most layer of the brain called?
Where is the hypothalamus located?
Just inferior to the thalamus
How is the thalamus separated?
Into right and left thalamus
What is found between the two thalami?
The third ventricle
What separates the thalamus and hypothalamus?
The hypothalamic sulcus
What is the area between the mammillary body and the infundibulum?
The median eminence
What are the three hypothalamic regions from medial to lateral?
Where does the pituitary gland sit?
In a depression called the sella turcica
What bone is the sella turcica found in?
The sphenoid bone
What makes the hypothalamus a part of the endocrine system?
Its relationship with the pituitary gland
Two parts of the pituitary gland?
What is the embryology of the posterior pituitary?
Downgrowth from the hypothalamus (neuroectoderm)
What is the embryology of the anterior pituitary?
Invagination from oral ectoderm
What are portal veins?
Veins between two capillary beds
What are autocrine hormones?
Cells release substances that act upon its own receptors
What are paracrine hormones?
Cells release substances that act upon neighboring cells receptors
What are endocrine hormones?
Cells release substances into the bloodstream to act upon cells at a distant site
What are synaptic hormones?
Precise release of substances onto a single cell at a synapse
How is the hypothalamus connected to the neurohypophysis?
Via neural pathways
How is the hypothalamus connected to the adenohypophysis?
Via blood vessels known as hypophyseal portal vessels
What two nuclei found in the median eminence?
Supraoptic nucleus (SON)
Paraventricular nucleus (PVN)
What are the two parts of the neurohypophysis?
What are the three parts of the adenohypophysis?
Pars tuberalis (wraps around infundibulum)
Pars intermedia (between pars nervosa of Post pituitary and pars distalis)
Where is the median eminence found?
Ventral portion of hypothalamus between mammillary bodies and infundibulum
What artery supplies the posterior pituitary?
Inferior hypophyseal artery
What vein drains the posterior pituitary?
What artery supplies the anterior pituitary?
Superior hypophyseal artery
What vein drains the anterior pituitary?
How does the median eminence get its hormones to the anterior pituitary?
Nuclei there send hormones into superior hypophyseal artery-> portal veins-> adenohypophysis (action)
Where do the SON and PVN send there axons?
To the posterior pituitary gland
Other than the SON and PVN what is found in the median eminence?
Many other nuclei that send hormones via bloodstream to the adenohypophysis
What does the anterior pituitary do in temperature regulation?
Detects increases in blood temp
Activates cutaneous vasodilation and sweating to lower temp
What does a lesion in anterior pituitary result in?
What does the posterior pituitary do in temperature regulation?
Detects decreases in blood temperature
Activates cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering to raise temperature
What does a lesion in the posterior pituitary cause?
What is the lateral hypothalamus nuclei control?
Feeding center so it tells you when you're hungry
What does the ventromedial hypothalamus nuclei control?
Satiety center so it tells you when you're full
What does the lateral hypothalamus express to set satiety point/tells of hunger?
What does a lesion in the lateral hypothalamus nuclei cause?