Anatomy of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Flashcards Preview

Endo/Repro Exam 1 > Anatomy of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Deck (41):
1

What is a nucleus?

A group of neuronal cell bodies grouped together in a tight area

2

What is the outer most layer of the brain called?

The cortex

3

Where is the hypothalamus located?

Just inferior to the thalamus

4

How is the thalamus separated?

Into right and left thalamus

5

What is found between the two thalami?

The third ventricle

6

What separates the thalamus and hypothalamus?

The hypothalamic sulcus

7

What is the area between the mammillary body and the infundibulum?

The median eminence

8

What are the three hypothalamic regions from medial to lateral?

Periventricular region
Medial region
Lateral region

9

Where does the pituitary gland sit?

In a depression called the sella turcica

10

What bone is the sella turcica found in?

The sphenoid bone

11

What makes the hypothalamus a part of the endocrine system?

Its relationship with the pituitary gland

12

Two parts of the pituitary gland?

Anterior/adenohypophysis
Posterior/neurohypophysis

13

What is the embryology of the posterior pituitary?

Downgrowth from the hypothalamus (neuroectoderm)

14

What is the embryology of the anterior pituitary?

Invagination from oral ectoderm

15

What are portal veins?

Veins between two capillary beds

16

What are autocrine hormones?

Cells release substances that act upon its own receptors

17

What are paracrine hormones?

Cells release substances that act upon neighboring cells receptors

18

What are endocrine hormones?

Cells release substances into the bloodstream to act upon cells at a distant site

19

What are synaptic hormones?

Precise release of substances onto a single cell at a synapse

20

How is the hypothalamus connected to the neurohypophysis?

Via neural pathways

21

How is the hypothalamus connected to the adenohypophysis?

Via blood vessels known as hypophyseal portal vessels

22

What two nuclei found in the median eminence?

Supraoptic nucleus (SON)
Paraventricular nucleus (PVN)

23

What are the two parts of the neurohypophysis?

Pars nervosa
Infundibulum

24

What are the three parts of the adenohypophysis?

Pars distalis
Pars tuberalis (wraps around infundibulum)
Pars intermedia (between pars nervosa of Post pituitary and pars distalis)

25

Where is the median eminence found?

Ventral portion of hypothalamus between mammillary bodies and infundibulum

26

What artery supplies the posterior pituitary?

Inferior hypophyseal artery

27

What vein drains the posterior pituitary?

Hypophyseal veins

28

What artery supplies the anterior pituitary?

Superior hypophyseal artery

29

What vein drains the anterior pituitary?

Hypophyseal veins

30

How does the median eminence get its hormones to the anterior pituitary?

Nuclei there send hormones into superior hypophyseal artery-> portal veins-> adenohypophysis (action)

31

Where do the SON and PVN send there axons?

To the posterior pituitary gland

32

Other than the SON and PVN what is found in the median eminence?

Many other nuclei that send hormones via bloodstream to the adenohypophysis

33

What does the anterior pituitary do in temperature regulation?

Detects increases in blood temp
Activates cutaneous vasodilation and sweating to lower temp

34

What does a lesion in anterior pituitary result in?

Hyperthermia

35

What does the posterior pituitary do in temperature regulation?

Detects decreases in blood temperature
Activates cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering to raise temperature

36

What does a lesion in the posterior pituitary cause?

Hypothermia

37

What is the lateral hypothalamus nuclei control?

Feeding center so it tells you when you're hungry

38

What does the ventromedial hypothalamus nuclei control?

Satiety center so it tells you when you're full

39

What does the lateral hypothalamus express to set satiety point/tells of hunger?

Orexins

40

What does a lesion in the lateral hypothalamus nuclei cause?

Anorexia

41

What does a lesion in the ventromedial hypothalamus nuclei?

Overeating
Rage