Flashcards in AP Euro Final Deck (50)
John Wycliffe and his followers
1320-1384. He was an English reformer who wanted less power to the priests. Questioned transubstantiation. Viewed as a heretic, survived in hiding. His followers were called Lollards, and faced constant persecution.
The Avignon Exile and Great Schism
Undermined both the power and prestige of the Church, and made people question the absolute power of the Papacy. Made people realize that the Church was a human institution and had its faults.
The Printing Press
Invented in the mid-1400s. New ideas and dissatisfaction with the church spread quicker, and people could read the Bible for themselves.
Long term causes of the Reformation
-The growth in the power of the secular king and the decrease in the power of the Pope.
-The popular discontent with the seemingly empty rituals of the Church.
-Moving toward more personal relationships/communications with god, called lay piety.
-Fiscal crisis in the church that lead to corruption and abuses of power.
What were the main abuses of church power [which led to the reformation]?
Simony, indulgences, dispensations, incelebacy, pluralism, and nepotism
The sale of Church positions, which quickly led to people becoming Church officials purely for economic motives, and not for spiritual ones
The sale of indulgences was the biggest moneymaker for the Church- when a person paid for an indulgence, it supposedly excused this sins they had committed (the more money, the more sins), even without them having to repent. Indulgences could even be bought for future sins not yet committed and for others, especially those were just died, and were supposed to make a person's passage into heaven faster
Payments that released a petitioner from the requirements of the canon law.
Church officials getting married and having kids
Having more than one position, usually in the Catholic Church, at a time.
Control by one particular family
What was the Reformation?
The final splitting of the Western Church into two halves- Catholicism and Protestantism.
Who was Martin Luther?
Luther (1483-1546) realized as a monk that the justification in the eyes of God was based on faith alone and not on good works and sacraments.
What did Martin Luther do in 1517?
He saw Johann Tetzel peddling indulgences, so on October 31st, 1517, he posted his Ninty-Five Theses on a church door.
What did the Ninety-Five Theses (1517) say?
That the pope could remit only the penalties he or canon law imposed, and that for other sins, the faithful had only to sincerely repeat to obtain an indulgence, not pay the Church.
What was the effect of the Ninety-Five Theses (1517) by Luther?
The theses made the profits from indulgences drop off, and angered the order that supported Tetzel.
Luther and other rival monks began to have theological discussions, which were ignored at first.
What were the three radical pamphlets that Luther had written by 1520?
An Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, The Babylonian Captivity, and The Liberty of the Christian Man
What happened at the Diet of Worms? (1520)
•Pope Leo V excommunicated Martin Luther, so Luther called him the anti-Christ.
•So Charles V ordered him to defend himself at the Diet of Worms.
•At Worms, Luther refused to retract his statements.
•Charles ordered that Luther be arrested and his works burned, but Prince Frederick of Saxony let him stay in his castle.
•This is where he created the Lutheran Doctrines.
Where was the Lutheran Doctrine codified?
The Augsburg Confession.
What are the Lutheran beliefs?
1. Justification by faith alone.
2. The Bible is the only authority.
3. All people are equally capable of gaining salvation on their own.
4. No distinction between priests and laity.
5. Consubstantiation, not transubstantiation.
6. A simplified ceremony with services not in Latin.
How did Protestantism/ Luther appeal to the peasants?
1. Message of equality in religion, which they extended to life in general.
2. A simplified religion with fewer rituals, which made it easier to understand.
3. Luther rebelled, which inspired many of them to do the same.
How did Protestantism/ Luther appeal to the nobles?
1. No tithe to pay, so money stays in the country.
2. Since they're against Charles for political reasons, they can justify it by becoming Protestant.
3. No more church owned land, so they can get more land.
4. No tithe for peasants, so they can tax them more.
How did Protestantism/ Luther appeal to the middle class?
1. No tithe to pay, so more money for them.
2. Now they can read the Bible and interpret it in their own way.
3. Concept of individualism- you are your own priest.
What were other early ideas/forms/leaders of Protestantism?
•Calvin (1509-1564) and Calvinism
What ideas of religion did Zwingli believe in?
(1484-1531)- had beliefs similar to Luther, but felt that people needed to lead godly lives and constantly be disciplined and threatened. Calvinism without predestination. Believed none of the sacraments bestowed grace.
What was one Radical sect of Christianity that broke out during the Reformation?
Anabaptists- they believed that Baptism should only be administered to adults who asked to be baptized.
Who was John Calvin/Calvinism? (1509-1564)
(1509-1564), John Calvin formed the second wave of the Reformation.
He believed in predestination, but established that those who were moral on earth tended to become part of the elect.
Calvinist communities had strict moral codes, and their doctrines were well defined in the Institutions of the Christian Religion, and they were all supposed to make their communities worthy of the future elect.
Who was the biggest contributor to the second wave of the Reformation?
What was the existing system of government in England like? (Before Henry VII and Henry VIII)
•Local administration- members of the gentry were chosen to become JPs. They were voluntary unpaid officials who wanted the position for status, and always supported the king.
•Lawmaking- parliament existed, but was always subordinate to the kings. Parliament contributed to the unification of the country.
•Judiciary- common law, not roman law. Traveling judges administered it.